NECO 2023 Visual Art (Objective & Essay) Answers

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Repeat pattern refers to a design element or motif that is repeated in a systematic manner to create a visual rhythm or harmony.

(i) Block repeat: The motif is repeated in a grid format
(ii) Half drop repeat: The motif is repeated in a staggered grid format
(iii) Shaped repeat: The motif is repeated in a non-straight line format
(iv) Radial repeat: The motif is repeated outward or inward in a circular pattern
(v) Fan repeat: The motif is repeated outward or inward in a fan-shaped pattern
(vi) Mirror repeat: The motif is repeated in a symmetrical pattern when a mirror image is viewed
(vii) Meander repeat: The motif is repeated in a continuous winding pattern

(i) Screen printing
(ii) Sublimation transfer
(iii) Heat transfer
(iv) Digital print transfer
(v) Direct to garment printing
(vi) Vinyl cutting
(vii) Engraving
(viii) Transfer foils

Archaic Period (800-480 BCE):
During the Archaic period, Greek art began to emerge and develop its distinctive style. The emphasis was on representing human figures in a more naturalistic manner, moving away from the stiff and stylized figures of Egyptian art. Sculptures became more lifelike and realistic, with the eyes and facial expressions of the figures being carefully studied and rendered. New artistic techniques also emerged, such as the use of metal and bronze and the development of a more refined sense of composition and design. During this period, there was a great emphasis on expressing motion through statues and figures. This was particularly evident in the work of sculptors such as Myron and Phidias.

Classical Period (480-323 BCE):
In the classical period of Greek art, sculpture and architecture reached its peak. Sculptors like Polykleitos and Skopas developed a more balanced approach to representation of human figures, in which emphasis was placed on the portrayal of ideal beauty. This ideal was represented in sculptures such as the Doryphoros by Polykleitos and the Laocoon by Skopas. The Parthenon and other grand buildings and structures were also designed and built during this period, using more refined techniques of structure and composition.

Hellenistic Period (323-146 BCE):
The Hellenistic period saw the decline of Greek art, as the Greek world became more diversified and fragmented. Artistic styles and techniques became more eclectic, incorporating elements from various cultures. Sculpture in particular became more expressive, allowing for a greater range of emotional and psychological responses from the viewer. One example is the Laocoon group, a sculpture depicting the Trojan priest of Apollo and his sons being killed by snakes. It conveys a powerful emotional response to the tragedy of death.

Art collector: An art collector is an individual who has a passion for collecting artworks. They often have a deep appreciation for various forms of art, ranging from paintings and sculptures to photographs and installations. Art collectors may acquire artworks for personal enjoyment, investments, or both.

Historian: A historian is a person who studies and writes about the past and is regarded as an authority on it. They analyze historical documents, artifacts, and other sources in order to interpret and write about important events and eras in human history.

Curator: A curator is a professional who is responsible for the care, display, and interpretation of artwork, artifacts, and other items in a museum, gallery, zoo, library, or other collection. They often conduct research, organize exhibitions, and lead educational programs related to their collections.

Monument: A monument is a structure or site created to remember or commemorate a person, event, or other aspect of history. Monuments can be either natural or man-made, and may take the form of buildings, sculptures, or other types of memorials.

Statue: A statue is a three-dimensional representation of a person, animal, or object, usually carved or cast out of stone, metal, or other durable materials. Statues are often used to honor influential figures or commemorate important events or locations.

Clay is a fine-grained natural rock material composed primarily of hydrated silicates of aluminum, such as kaolinite, illite, and montmorillonite.

(i) Plasticity: Clay can be molded and shaped into various forms which make it ideal for use in pottery, sculptures, and other creative applications.
(ii) Hardened: Clay hardens and becomes more durable when heated or fired which makes it used more commonly as building materials in construction.
(iii) Density: Clay generally has a low density due to the small size of its particles.
(iv) Absorbency: Clay particles can retain moisture, which makes them absorb liquid easily.
(v) Heat resistance: Clay can resist high temperatures better than most other materials.
(vi) Colorability: Clay is famously used in pottery due to its ability to take on various colors.
(vii) Versatility: Clay can be combined with different substances to create a specific desired texture, shape, or design.

(i) Clay is widely used in pottery for making bowls, mugs, vases, and other ornamental items.
(ii) Clay can be used to make tiles, figurines, statues, bricks, and other objects by shaping it and then firing in a kiln.
(iii) Clay can be used for building houses, dams, and even roads by mixing with other materials.
(iv) Clay is used in the production of refractory materials that can withstand high temperatures, such as furnaces.
(v) Clay is sometimes used in traditional healing methods for treating wounds, digestion problems, and even cancer.
(vi) Clay is often used to make beads and jewelry, due to its malleability and ability to be colored.

Lettering refers to the art and practice of creating visually appealing and decorative letters and words. It involves the deliberate design and arrangement of letters, often with attention to various typographic elements such as style, size, spacing, and form.

(i) Roman lettering
(ii) Brush lettering
(iii) Gothic lettering
(iv) Casual lettering
(vi) Script lettering

(i) Clean lines
(ii) Coherence
(iii) Visibility
(iv) Balance
(v) Harmony
(vi) Proportions
(vii) Impact

(i) Communication: Lettering is widely used for written communication, such as writing letters to friends, family, or business associates. It allows for clear and personalized messages to be conveyed.
(ii) Advertising: Lettering is frequently used in advertising to create an eye-catching slogan or logo for a company. This can be seen on billboards, shop fronts, and other advertising materials.
(iii) Design: Lettering is often used in graphic design to convey messages through the use of typefaces, logos, and images.
(iv) Signage: Lettering is used in virtually all forms of signage. It is used to clearly identify specific places or objects, such as buildings, roads, signs, and pathways.
(v) Calligraphy: Lettering is also used in calligraphy, or the art of beautiful, decorative handwriting.
(vi) Brand Identity: Lettering can be used to create a unique brand identity for a company, product, or service. It can be used to create a recognizable logo, slogan, or name.
(vii) Art: Lettering is also often used in fine art in the form of typography, graffiti, and other forms of expression.

Susan Wenger, also known as Adunni Olorisha, was a prominent figure in the development of art and culture in Nigeria, particularly in the region of Osun State. She was a versatile artist, art curator, and priestess of the Osun goddess. Her influence extended beyond just visual arts, encompassing traditional religion, folklore, and environmental conservation.

Wenger moved to Nigeria from Austria in the 1950s and became captivated by the Yoruba culture and spirituality. She settled in the Osun-Osogbo Sacred Grove, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, and played a pivotal role in its preservation and development. She worked tirelessly to restore and maintain the grove as a sacred space, promoting the integration of traditional Yoruba beliefs and art into modern society.

As a skilled artist herself, Wenger embraced various art forms, including sculpture, painting, and other traditional crafts. She often incorporated elements from Yoruba mythology and spirituality into her work, helping to bridge the gap between contemporary art and traditional beliefs. Through her involvement in various art exhibitions, workshops, and festivals, Wenger contributed to the recognition of Nigerian art on a global scale.

Her efforts also had a positive impact on the local community, as she empowered local artists and artisans by providing them with opportunities to showcase their talents and preserve their cultural heritage. Wenger’s contributions to the development of art in Nigeria are significant not only for her artistic endeavors but also for her dedication to preserving the rich cultural and spiritual traditions of the Yoruba people.

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