JUPEB 2023 Government Answers Now Available

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The Rule of Law is a fundamental principle that underpins the functioning of a just and democratic society. It refers to the idea that all individuals, including government officials and institutions, are subject to and accountable under the law. In a society that upholds the Rule of Law, laws are clear, consistent, and apply equally to everyone regardless of their social status, wealth, or political influence. This principle ensures that the legal system operates in a fair, transparent, and predictable manner, providing a framework that safeguards individual rights and liberties and prevents arbitrary exercise of power.

Pick any 4

(i) Strong and Independent Judiciary: An impartial and independent judiciary is crucial for upholding the Rule of Law. Judges must be free from political interference, financial pressure, or any form of intimidation. They should interpret and apply laws objectively, ensuring that justice is served fairly and consistently.

(ii) Transparency and Access to Information: Openness and transparency in government actions and decision-making processes help prevent corruption and maintain accountability. Access to accurate and timely information allows citizens to understand and participate in the legal system.

(iii) Effective Legal Framework: A comprehensive legal framework that is well-drafted, clear, and consistently enforced is essential. Laws should be designed to protect individual rights, promote justice, and address evolving societal needs. Inconsistent or overly complex laws can erode trust in the legal system.

(iv) Civil Society Participation: Active participation of civil society organizations, including NGOs, community groups, and watchdog organizations, helps hold governments accountable and ensures that laws and policies reflect the needs and aspirations of the citizens. Civil society can contribute to monitoring government actions and advocating for legal reforms.

(v) Education and Awareness: Public education about legal rights, responsibilities, and the legal system is important for citizens to understand their role in upholding the Rule of Law. An informed populace is more likely to demand accountability and respect for the law.


State refers to a politically organized community or entity that exercises authority and control over a defined territory and its inhabitants. It is a sovereign political organization that governs and manages the affairs of its citizens within a specific geographic boundary.

(i) Popular Sovereignty: the modern state is based on the principle that all citizens possess certain rights and freedoms, and the ultimate authority and power lies with the people in the form of a constitution or other laws.
(ii) Territorial Integrity: the modern state is founded upon a clearly defined and recognized territorial boundary. This boundary is protected from external interference or attack.
(iii) Government: the modern state has an effective government capable of making and enforcing laws and exercising its authority within the boundaries of the state.
(iv) Citizenship: the modern state has a clear definition of citizenship and rights associated with it. It also sets out rules for determining the citizenship status of individuals living within the state’s borders.
(v) Law: the modern state establishes a legal system that defines the relationships between citizens, between citizens and the state, and between state and non-state entities.
(vi) Monopoly Over the Use of Force: the modern state is the sole legitimate authority for the use of force within its territory. This is to protect its citizens from external violence and internal civil unrest.

Political ideology refers to a set of beliefs, values, and ideas that guide an individual’s or a group’s understanding of political, social, and economic issues. It serves as a framework for interpreting the world and making decisions about government, policy, and societal organization. Political ideology often shapes a person’s stance on topics such as the role of government, the distribution of resources, individual rights, and social justice.

(i) Core Beliefs and Values: Political ideologies are characterized by a core set of fundamental beliefs and values that provide a foundation for understanding the world. These beliefs often cover topics like the nature of human beings, the role of government, justice, equality, and individual freedoms. For example, a liberal ideology might emphasize the importance of individual rights and a limited government role, while a socialist ideology might focus on economic equality and a more active government role in wealth redistribution.

(ii) Comprehensive Vision: Ideologies offer a comprehensive and integrated vision of how society should be organized. They provide a framework for addressing a wide range of issues, from economic policy to social norms, foreign relations, and environmental concerns. This vision helps individuals or groups to develop a coherent and consistent perspective on different aspects of society.

(iii) Prescriptive Nature: Political ideologies not only describe how the world is perceived, but they also prescribe how it should be structured. They offer solutions and recommendations for policy and governance based on their underlying beliefs. These prescriptions often guide decisions on issues such as taxation, healthcare, education, and social welfare.

(iv) Conflict and Contestation: Ideologies can lead to both cooperation and conflict in society. Different ideologies often clash over policy directions and societal goals. Political parties and movements often rally around specific ideologies, leading to debates, elections, and sometimes even social unrest. These conflicts arise from differing interpretations of what constitutes a just and functional society, as well as varying opinions on the best means to achieve these ends.


Public administration is the implementation of government policies and programs to effectively and efficiently solve public problems and meet the needs of the society. It involves managing public resources, making decisions, and implementing policies in a way that promotes the public interest.

(i) The Classical Theory: This is the most prominent theory which emphasizes the need for efficiency and rationality in public administration. It focuses on a scientific approach to problem solving and uses principles of hierarchy, bureaucracy, specialization, and standardization to achieve organizational goals.
(ii) The Human Relations Theory: This theory is based on the idea that employees should be viewed as capable of independent thought and action and should be allowed to exercise autonomy and creativity. It stresses the importance of motivation, communication, cooperation, and team work in achieving organizational objectives.
(iii) The Systems Theory: This theory focuses on the interaction between different components of an organization and how they work together to achieve organizational goals. It emphasizes the need to consider the “big picture” when making decisions and understanding the implications of those decisions.
(iv) The New Public Management Theory: This theory emphasizes the need for flexibility and innovation in the public sector. It calls for outsourcing and privatization of some government services, as well as the use of private sector practices and technology to improve public sector performance.
(v) The Political Theory: This theory suggests that public administration is shaped by the political environment it operates in. It argues that public administrators must take into account political considerations when developing policies and implementing programs.
(vi) The Public Choice Theory: This theory examines how individual preferences and collective decisions contribute to public policy. It suggests that public policy is shaped by the desires, incentives, and calculations of individuals and groups, rather than solely by “the public interest”.

Nationalism refers to a strong sense of identity and loyalty towards one’s own nation or country. It is a political ideology that promotes the interests and rights of a nation, often emphasizing its cultural heritage, language, history, and territorial rights.

(i) Strengthening of Borders: Nationalism has strongly influenced West African countries by strengthening their borders and giving them a sense of national identity.
(ii) Economic Development: Nationalism has encouraged the development of domestic industries and the adoption of protectionist policies that have helped spur economic growth.
(iii) Cultural Sovereignty: With nationalism, countries in West Africa have been able to maintain their own unique culture and identity. This has helped promote social stability and a sense of pride.
(iv) Political Stability: With strong nationalistic feelings among the population, political leaders in West Africa are better able to build strong and stable governments that are focused on serving their citizenry.
(v) Pride in Heritage: Nationalism has enabled people in West Africa to take pride in their heritage and to celebrate their unique cultural institutions.
(vi) Unity of People: Nationalism has helped to create a unified sense of purpose and collective identity among the people of West Africa, allowing them to stand together and fight for their rights.

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