NECO 2023 Geography Obj,Practical & Physical Questions And Answers

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(i) Solstice means longer days in summer and longer nights in winter while Equinox means equal days and equal nights
(ii) Solstice occurs on June 21st and December 22nd while Equinox occurs on March 21st and September 23rd
(iii) Solstice could be summer or winter while Equinox could be spring or autumn

(i) The length of the lines of latitudes decrease with distance from the equator.
(ii) All lines of latitude are circles parallel to the equator.
(iii) The equator is the starting point for measuring latitude and is designated as 0 degrees latitude.
(iv) The maximum latitude is 90 degrees, which occurs at the North Pole (90 degrees North) and the South Pole (90 degrees South)
(v) The spacing between lines of latitude varies with the distance from the equator.


Fold mountains are created where two or more of Earth’s tectonic plates are pushed together. At these colliding, compressing boundaries, rocks and debris are warped and folded into rocky outcrops, hills, mountains, and entire mountain ranges. Fold mountains are created through a process called oroge.

Volcanic mountains form through volcanic activity, where magma rises to the Earth’s surface through vents or fissures. Eruptions release lava, ash, and gases, building up layers around the vent. The accumulated materials shape the mountain into a cone with steep slopes and a pointed summit. These mountains are typically found in subduction zones or hotspots, where tectonic plate movements create intense heat and pressure, leading to the formation of magma. Over time, recurrent eruptions can add to the mountain’s height and change its appearance.

Block mountains are formed by the displacement of crustal blocks along faults. Tectonic forces uplift one block, creating steep cliffs, while the adjacent block sinks, forming a gentler slope. These mountains often occur in regions with significant tectonic activity, where large faults accommodate the movement of the Earth’s crust.


(i) Convectional rainfall: In areas intensively heated, hot/warm air rises accompanied by rise in relative humidity. Rising air becomes saturated and water vapour condenses with cloud formed quickly and heavy rains accompanied by thunder and lightening. It is characterised by heavy winds, lightening and thunder. Rain falls within limited areas usually in the afternoons. Clear skies immediately after the rain and hailstone may occur.

(ii) Relief or Orographic rainfall: Moist air is forced to rise above a mountain/relief barrier usually on the windward slopes of mountains. Rising air expands and becomes cooler and relative humidity rises and air becomes saturated. Water vapour condenses, cloud is formed with rainfall on the windward slope and descending air on the leeward side.
It is associated with mountainous regions with even distribution of rainfall over a highland. Windward area has rainfall while leeward side has little or no rainfall and associated with ascending and descending wind.

(i)Lapse Rate:
The lapse rate refers to the rate at which the air temperature changes with altitude. It is usually expressed in degrees Celsius per kilometer (°C/km) or degrees Fahrenheit per thousand feet (°F/1000 ft). The two main types of lapse rates are the environmental lapse rate and the adiabatic lapse rates.

(ii) Inversion:
Inversion is a weather phenomenon where there is a reversal of the normal lapse rate. Instead of the temperature decreasing with altitude, it starts increasing. Inversion layers act as a lid, trapping cooler air near the surface under a layer of warmer air aloft. This inversion layer prevents vertical mixing of the atmosphere, leading to stable atmospheric conditions.

(iii) Dew Point:
This is the temperature at which the air becomes saturated with water vapor and starts to condense into liquid water, such as dew, fog, or clouds. When the air temperature cools to the dew point, it reaches 100% relative humidity.


Weathering is the natural process by which rocks and minerals are broken down and disintegrated into smaller particles and dissolved substances due to exposure to the atmosphere and various environmental factors.

(i) Water
(ii) Temperature
(iii) Acidity (pH)
(iv) Mineral Composition

(i) Hydration: Hydration is a chemical weathering process that involves the absorption of water molecules into the crystal structure of minerals. When water is incorporated into the mineral lattice, it causes the mineral to expand, leading to the physical disintegration of the rock. One common example is the hydration of feldspar minerals, found in many types of rocks.

(ii) Oxidation: Oxidation is a chemical reaction in which minerals react with oxygen in the atmosphere. This process leads to the breakdown of certain minerals, particularly those containing iron, such as ferrous minerals turning into ferric minerals. The rusting of iron is a familiar example of oxidation in action.

(iii) Carbonation: Carbonation occurs when carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere or dissolved in water combines with water to form carbonic acid. This weak acid reacts with minerals like calcium carbonate (found in limestone and marble) to dissolve and break them down. Over time, this process can create features like caves and sinkholes.


(7ai) Renewable Resources:
Renewable resources are natural resources that can be replenished or regenerated naturally within a relatively short period, either through natural processes or human intervention. They are considered sustainable as their availability is not exhausted as long as they are managed responsibly.
(i) Solar Energy
(ii) Wind Energy

(7aii) Non-renewable Resources:
Non-renewable resources are natural resources that exist in limited quantities and cannot be replenished or regenerated at a rate that keeps up with their consumption. Once these resources are depleted, they are no longer available for future use.
(i) Fossil fuels, such as coal, oil, and natural gas
(ii) Minerals and Metals such as iron ore, copper, and aluminum

(i) Sustainable Usage: Conservation practices ensure that non-renewable resources are used efficiently and sparingly. This sustainable approach extends the availability of these resources, allowing them to meet current and future demands.

(ii) Environmental Protection: Conservation helps in reducing the negative environmental impacts associated with the extraction, processing, and use of non-renewable resources. This includes minimizing habitat destruction, water pollution, and greenhouse gas emissions.

(iii) Economic Stability: Efficient use and conservation of non-renewable resources contribute to economic stability. By extending the lifespan of these resources, it prevents price volatility and supply shortages, benefiting industries and economies reliant on them.

(iv) Transition to Renewable Sources: Conservation encourages the exploration and development of alternative, renewable energy sources. As non-renewable resources become scarcer or more expensive, there is greater motivation to invest in renewable technologies, fostering a more sustainable and cleaner energy future.


(i) It provides real-time location information and helps users find the most efficient routes to their destinations.
(ii) It allows surveyors to accurately determine coordinates and elevations of points on the Earth’s surface, aiding in the creation of detailed maps.
(iii) In agriculture, it enables farmers to map and monitor their fields, optimize irrigation and fertilization, and precisely target areas requiring attention.
(iv) GPS is crucial for emergency response and search and rescue operations. It helps responders locate and navigate to accident sites, lost individuals, or disaster-stricken areas.

(i) Data Integration: GIS and remote sensing are complementary technologies that often work together. Remote sensing provides valuable data and imagery from satellites or aerial platforms, while GIS serves as a tool to store, manage, analyze, and display this data in a spatial context.

(ii) Spatial Analysis: Remote sensing data, such as satellite imagery, provides extensive coverage of the Earth’s surface. GIS tools allow users to extract valuable information from these images by performing spatial analysis, such as land cover classification, change detection, and identifying patterns and trends.

(i) One of the challenges facing GIS applications in Nigeria is the availability of accurate and up-to-date geospatial data.
(ii) Inadequate infrastructure and limited technology such as unreliable internet connectivity and modern computing resources affects the application of GIS in Nigeria
(iii) Lack of qualified staff
(iv) financial implications of hardware and software
(v) Insufficient awareness of decision-makers on GIS

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