2023 Ondo State Biology Question & Answers

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(1a) A cell is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms. Cells are often called the “building blocks of life”. The cell was discovered by Robert Hooke in 1665, who named the biological unit for its resemblance to cells inhabited by Christian monks in a monastery.

(I) Cell Wall: Plant cells have a rigid cell wall made of cellulose that surrounds the cell membrane. Animal cells do not have a cell wall.

(ii) Chloroplasts: Plant cells contain chloroplasts for photosynthesis (converting sunlight into food energy), which animal cells lack.

(iii) Central Vacuole: Plant cells often contain a large central vacuole that stores water and maintains turgidity of the cell. Animal cells have smaller vacuoles dispersed throughout the cell.

(iv) Shape: Due to the presence of the cell wall, plant cells have a fixed, rectangular shape, while animal cells tend to have a more irregular and round shape.

(v) Lysosomes: Animal cells often contain lysosomes, which are membrane-bound organelles containing digestive enzymes to break down waste products. While plant cells also have mechanisms for waste breakdown, the typical lysosomes are not commonly observed.

(vi) Centrioles: These are present in all animal cells, and help in cell division. They are absent in most plant cells.

(vii) Energy Production: Animal cells rely on mitochondria for energy production. Plant cells also have mitochondria, but they can produce energy not just from the mitochondria, but also from the chloroplasts through photosynthesis.


(I) Cellular Organization: All living organisms are composed of one or more cells.

(ii) Metabolism: Living organisms carry out a series of chemical reactions to convert energy from one form to another, commonly referred to as metabolism.

(iii) Growth: Living organisms grow, which involves an increase in size and/or number of cells.

(iv) Reproduction: Living organisms have the ability to reproduce and create offspring similar to themselves.

(v) Response to Stimuli: Living organisms can respond to changes in their environment, a trait known as irritability or responsiveness.

(vi) Adaptation: Over generations, living organisms evolve in response to changes in the environment, leading to adaptations that improve survival and reproduction.

(vii) Homeostasis: Living organisms maintain a stable internal environment, even when the external environment changes, a process called homeostasis.

(viii) Nutrition: Living organisms take in nutrients from their environment to power their metabolic processes.

(ix) Excretion: Living organisms produce and excrete waste products generated as a result of metabolic functions.

(x) Movement: All living organisms show some form of movement. This can be obvious, as in animals, or less obvious, as in plants that move toward sunlight (phototropism) or open and close their stomata to regulate gas exchange.

4a)A joint is a point/place, where two or more bones meet/articulate in the body

4b)Types of Joints       
– Ball and socket joint  found in the Shoulder/hip
-Hinge joint  found in the Elbow/knee/phalanges
-Sliding/gliding joint found in the Wrist/ankle/vertebrae
-Pivot/rotating joint found in the Neck 

(i) Cervical Vertebrae
(ii) Thoracic Vertebrae
(iii) Coccyx Vertebrae
(iv) Sacrum Vertebrae
(v)Lumbar Vertebrae

First aid is the initial and immediate assistance provided to someone who has been injured or suddenly taken ill.

(Choose any Three)
1. preserving life
2. preventing injury from getting worse
3. aiding recovery
4. relieving pain
5. protecting the unconscious.

A dislocation refers to a medical condition where the ends of two connected bones are forced out of their normal position at a joint

(Choose any Three)
1. Severe pain
2. Swelling
3. Deformity or misalignment
4. Limited range of motion
5. Bruising: Bruising
6. Tenderness and warmth
7. Numbness or tingling
8. Weakness

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