NECO 2023 Insurance Essays & Objective Answers Now Available

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Risk transfer in insurance refers to the process of shifting the risk of loss from one party to another through the purchase of an insurance policy. This means that the insurer assumes the financial responsibility of paying for any potential losses or damages that may occur to the insured. The insured pays a premium in exchange for this transfer of risk. By transferring the risk, the insured can protect themselves from the financial impact of a loss, while the insurer assumes the risk and spread it among a larger pool of insureds.

(i)Pure Risks: Pure risks are risks that involve only the possibility of loss or no loss, there is no chance of any gain occurring from pure risks. Such risks include situations such as accidents, natural disasters, and sudden illnesses. Pure risks are generally insurable.

(ii)Speculative Risks: Speculative risks are those risks associated with investment choices that have both the potential for profit or gain and the potential for loss. Speculative risks are not generally insurable because the outcome may be either beneficial or detrimental.

(iii)Particular Risks: Particular risks are risks that are unique to a specific individual or organization, and they are not faced by the general public. These risks are not insurable in the traditional sense, but they can be managed through specialized risk management techniques such as self-insurance, risk retention or hedging. Examples of particular risks include reputation risks, credit risks, and political risks.

Insurance Risk                             
(i) Can be quantified and measured             
(ii) Involves a known probability of loss
(iii)Is insurable through a third party insurer

Uninsurable Risk                           
(i)Cannot be quantified or measured            
(ii) Probability of loss is unknown or undefined
(iii)Cannot be insured through third party insurers

Identification of Risks

(i)Role: A loss adjuster works for the insurer to assess and investigate claims and determine the amount of compensation payable to the insured, while a loss assessor works for the policyholder to assess the damage and negotiate with the insurer for a fair settlement.

(ii)Responsibility: A loss adjuster is responsible for managing the claims process and ensuring compliance with the insurance policy, whereas a loss assessor is responsible for facilitating the claims process and advocating for the policyholder’s interests.

(iii)Expertise: A loss adjuster typically has expertise in insurance and claims management, while a loss assessor has expertise in assessing damage, estimating repair costs, and negotiating settlements.

(iv)Payment: A loss adjuster is paid by the insurer and may receive a commission on the settlement amount, while a loss assessor is paid by the policyholder and may receive a percentage of the settlement amount or a fixed fee for their services.

(i)Promoting Economic Growth: Insurance companies provide protection against risks that businesses face, such as liability claims, theft, and damage to property. By doing so, insurance reduces the financial burden on businesses and allows them to focus on their core operations. This, in turn, encourages entrepreneurship, innovation, and investment, which can lead to economic growth and development.

(ii)Encouraging Risk Management: Insurance encourages policyholders to adopt risk management practices to reduce the likelihood of claims. For instance, an insurance policy for a property may require that the owner install smoke detectors or a security system to minimize the risk of loss. By encouraging policyholders to manage risks, insurance companies can reduce the probability and severity of claims, which helps to keep premiums affordable.

(iii)Payment of Claims: When policyholders suffer losses, insurance companies pay out claims promptly and efficiently, allowing policyholders to recover financially from adverse events. This may include providing financial support for medical expenses, property damage, or lost income. The prompt payment of claims enables policyholders to return to normal life or business operations faster than would otherwise be possible, which can help to reduce the overall economic impact of a loss.

(i)Ownership: A person who owns a property, such as a house or a vehicle, automatically has an insurable interest in it. This interest arises from the financial value attached to the property, which may be lost or destroyed in case of an adverse event.

(ii)Mortgage: Anyone who has taken a mortgage loan to purchase a property has an insurable interest in it. In this case, the lender has the right to ensure the property to protect its financial interest in the loan.

(iii)Employment: An employer has an insurable interest in an employee who provides a substantial contribution to their business operations. This interest arises from the loss of revenue or other adverse effects the employer may experience if the employee falls ill or dies suddenly.

(iv)Legal Liability: If a person is legally liable for any damage or loss arising from an event, they have an insurable interest in the liability itself. For instance, a healthcare organization that may face lawsuits due to medical malpractice by its employees has an insurable interest in such liability.

(i)Purchase of Assets: Insurable interest can be created when a person has acquired ownership or has a legal interest in an asset, such as a house, car, or business equipment. The individual has a financial interest in the asset and can purchase an insurance policy to protect it against damage, theft, or loss.

(ii)Business Transactions: Insurable interest can also be created through business transactions such as leasing, supply contracts, and joint ventures. In these cases, a business has an insurable interest in the assets they have leased or the goods they have supplied because any damage or loss will negatively impact their business operations.

(iii)Personal Relationships: Insurable interest can also arise from personal relationships that carry a financial interest. For example, spouses have an insurable interest in each other’s lives because the death of one spouse could result in a financial loss to the surviving spouse. Similarly, parents have an insurable interest in their children’s lives because they depend on them for support and may incur expenses arising from their education, healthcare, or other needs.

(i)Insured: The person or entity that requires insurance coverage for their insurable interests.

(ii)Insurer: The company that provides the insurance coverage to the insured party.

(iii)Beneficiary: The individual or entity that will receive the insurance benefits in case of an insured event, such as death, accident, or loss of property.

(iv)Policyholder: The individual or entity that purchases the insurance policy on behalf of the insured party.

(v)Underwriter: The person or team responsible for assessing the risks associated with insuring the insurable interests and determining the premium charges for the policy.

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