WAEC 2023 Dyeing And Bleaching Essays & Obj Answers Now Available

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Dyeing and Bleaching


Candle wax is a specific type of wax used for making candles. It refers to a solid, flammable substance that, when melted and combined with a wick, forms the main body of a candle.


(i)Both candle wax and cassava paste can exist in a solid state.
(ii)Both substances can be utilized for various purposes.
(iii)Candle wax and cassava paste can be shaped or molded into different forms.
(iv)Both substances are sensitive to heat.


(i)Resist Agent: Candle wax acts as a resist agent, creating a barrier on the fabric that prevents the dye from penetrating the areas where the wax is applied.

(ii)Design Creation: By using a tjanting, brush, or other tools, artists apply melted candle wax to the fabric in specific patterns or designs.

(iii)Layering: Candle wax enables the layering technique in batiking

(iv)Crackle Effect: When wax is applied in multiple layers or with varying thicknesses, it can create a crackle effect in the final design.


(i)Always place candles on a stable and heat-resistant surface

(ii)Place candles in appropriate candle holders or containers that are specifically designed for their size and shape

(iii)Never leave a burning candle unattended. Always ensure someone is present in the room where the candle is lit

(iv) Always avoid moving a lit candle as it increases the risk of spills or accidents

(v)Keep candles away from areas with drafts, air vents, or open windows, as these can cause the flame to flicker, leading to uneven melting and potential spills


(i)Both batik and bleaching involve manipulating the fabric to create desired patterns or designs.
(ii)Both techniques provide a level of control over the design outcome.
(iii)Both batik and bleaching require specific tools and materials
(iv)Both techniques involve selectively applying a substance to the fabric
(v)Both processes involve manipulating the color of the fabric.
(vi)Both batiking and bleaching can create visual contrast on the fabric.


(i)Ascorbic Acid
(iii)Baking Soda
(v)Hydrogen Peroxide
(vi)Lemon Juice
(vii)Oxygen-Based Bleach

(3i)Fabric: Fabric refers to the material used in textile production. It can be made from various fibers, such as cotton, silk, wool, or synthetic materials like polyester.

(3ii)Binder: A binder is a substance used in fabric printing or dyeing to help the color or pigment adhere to the fabric fibers.

(3iii)Fixing: Fixing refers to the process of setting or stabilizing the color on the fabric to prevent it from fading or washing out.

(3iv)Fast: Fast refers to the colourfastness of a dye or pigment. A dye or pigment is considered fast if it has good resistance to fading when exposed to washing, light, or friction.

(3v) Wax : wax refers to a substance that is applied to fabric to create patterns or designs by resisting the dye or color applied to the fabric.

(3vi)Squeegee: A squeegee is a tool commonly used in fabric printing or dyeing processes. It consists of a flat blade or rubber edge attached to a handle

(3vii)Tjanting: Tjanting is a traditional tool used in batik, a wax-resist dyeing technique. It is a small brass or copper container with a spout or nozzle.

(i)Choose and prepare the fabric: Select the fabric type, wash and dry the fabric to remove any sizing or impurities.
(ii)Design the print: Choose and draw the pattern design to be printed onto the fabric.
(iii). Carve the block stamp: Carve the design onto a block of wood or other material, creating a raised pattern that will be used for printing.
(iv) Prepare the ink: Mix the ink with the appropriate ratio of water or other mediums to achieve the desired consistency and color for the print.
(v)Apply ink to the stamp: Dip the carving block stamp into the ink and ensure an even coating of ink is deposited onto the surface.
(vi). Transfer the print: Press the block stamp firmly and evenly onto the fabric to transfer the inked design.
(vii)Repeat the process: Reapply ink and repeat the process until the entire fabric is printed.
(viii). Fix the print: Heat-set or fix the print by ironing or steaming the fabric to ensure the ink is permanent and will not wash out.

(5a) The technique used is tie-dyeing.

(5b) Two similarities between tie-dyeing technique and spiral technique are:

(i)Both techniques involve the use of twine or string to bind the fabric before dyeing.
(ii)Both techniques create a unique and unpredictable design on the fabric.

(i) Soak the fabric in water to prepare it for dyeing.
(ii)Fold the fabric and use twine or string to tightly bind sections of the fabric.
(iii). Prepare the dyes and chemicals according to instructions.
(iv) Place the fabric in a bowl and pour the dye over the fabric, making sure to saturate all sections of the fabric.
(v) Apply heat to the dye and fabric, either by microwaving or by placing the bowl in a sunny location.
(vi) Allow the fabric to sit in the dye for the recommended amount of time.
(vii). Rinse the fabric in cool water until the water runs clear.
(viii)Untie the twine or string and remove from the fabric.
(ix). Wash the fabric in cool water with a mild detergent and allow it to air dry.

(6a) The method to be used is screen printing.

(6b) (i) creating unique textiles for fashion or home decor
(ii) designing custom t-shirts or other apparel (iii)producing promotional items with a company logo or message.


(i)Design creation: Creating a design on tracing paper or a computer program.
(ii) Screen preparation: Applying blue emulsion to the mesh frame and allowing it to dry in a darkroom.
(iii) Image transfer: Placing the dried tracing paper with design onto the blue emulsion coated mesh screen and exposing it with a plain glass in bright light.
(iv)Screen washout: Washing away the unexposed blue emulsion with water.
(v) Ink preparation: Mixing purple ink with bichromate to make it adhere to the fabric.
(vi). Printing: Placing fabric on padded table, laying the mesh frame over it and using the squeegee to apply ink to the fabric in the areas where the design had been printed on the mesh screen.
(vii). Drying and finishing: Allowing the printed fabric to air dry and then setting the ink with heat or steam.

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