WAEC Animal Husbandry 2023 Alternative B Essay And Objective Answers

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(i) To extend its shelf life
(ii) To prevent spoilage and bacterial growth
(iii) To maintain its nutritional content and quality
(iv) To improve its flavor and texture
(v) To facilitate storage and transportation
(vi) To increase availability and accessibility in areas with limited access to fresh meat
(vii) To reduce waste and save money
(viii) To meet specific cultural or religious dietary restrictions

(i) Ham
(ii) Sausage
(iii) Bacon
(iv) Hot dogs
(v) Deli meats
(vi) Jerky
(vii) Pepperoni
(viii) Corned beef

(i) They are smaller in size compared to commercial breeds.
(ii) They have a more intense flavor and texture.
(iii) They are more resistant to diseases and adverse environmental conditions.
(iv) They are able to forage for their own food.
(v) They are usually raised in free-range systems.
(vi) They have a longer life span than commercial breeds.

(i) Artificial vagina
(ii) Electro-ejaculation
(iii) Massage method
(iv) Manual collection
(v) Transrectal massage
(vi) Epididymal or testicular sperm aspiration

(i) Ensure that the equipment is cleaned and sterilized properly before use.
(ii) Use only high-quality semen from healthy donors.
(iii) Follow proper hygiene protocols to minimize the risk of infection.

Malnutrition in animal husbandry refers to the condition in which an animal does not receive adequate amounts of required nutrients such as protein vitamins and minerals necessary for proper growth development and maintenance of bodily functions.

(i) Calcium
(ii) Methionine
(iii) Lysine

(i) Maize: Provides energy in the form of carbohydrates needed for growth and maintenance of body functions.
(ii) Fishmeal: Rich source of high-quality protein omega-3 fatty acids and essential micronutrients like vitamins and minerals that aid in growth and maintenance of feather quality immune system and other functions.
(iii) Groundnut cake: Contains protein and essential amino acids that are important for poultry growth and development.
(iv) Oyster shell: Provides calcium required for proper bone development and eggshell formation.

(i) To monitor and evaluate bird performance: Keeping records of feed consumption weight gain and egg production helps farmers to monitor bird performance and detect any issues such as sickness or poor growth rate.
(ii) To manage feed and medication usage: Records of feed and medication consumption help farmers to manage their stock and plan for future usage.
(iii) To keep track of expenses and income: Keeping financial records is essential for budgeting and making informed business decisions.
(iii) To comply with regulatory requirements: Some poultry farming activities require keeping records to comply with regulations and standards.
(iv) To plan for future production: Records help farmers to forecast future production and plan for necessary adjustments to optimize production.
(v) To improve efficiency: Analyzing records of feed conversion cost of production and bird performance helps farmers to identify areas where efficiency can be improved and implement necessary changes.

(i) Ensure proper drainage: Liver flukes require damp environments to complete their life cycle so proper drainage will help to reduce their population.
(ii) Avoid overgrazing: Overgrazing of pasture by livestock can damage the grass and create ideal conditions for liver fluke infestation.
(iii) De-worm regularly: De-worming of livestock helps to prevent liver fluke infestation by killing the immature stages of the parasite.
(iv) Rotate pasture: Regularly rotating livestock to different pastures helps to break the life cycle of liver flukes by interrupting their access to required habitat.
(v) Boil drinking water: Boiling water for drinking by livestock prevents them from ingesting snails which can harbor infective stages of liver flukes.
(vi) Use snail control measures: Controlling snail populations in water sources and pastures is an effective way of preventing liver fluke infestation in livestock.

Parasites are the small pests that live by taking nutrients (usually blood) from their animal host.

Pest refers to organims that can cause harm, nuisance or economic damage to livestock or the production environment

(i) fleas
(ii) flies
(iii) keds
(iv) lice
(v) midges

(i) Wool maggot
(ii) Nose bot flies
(iii) Tick
(iv) Lice
(v) Keds

(i) killing animals
(ii) Spreading disease agents and parasitic worms.
(iii) Reducing of milk production
(iv) Decreasing animal resistance to other diseases.

(i) Lack of appetite
(ii) Diarrhea
(iii) Weight loss
(iv ) Difficulty eating
(v) Red or irritated eyes
(vi) Difficulty in breathing

(ii)Isolation and quarantine of sick animals
(iii)Proper nutrition
(iv)Clean and hygienic living conditions
(v)Regular deworming
(vi)Prompt treatment of sick animals

i)Improving the palatability of the feed
ii)Providing clean and fresh water
iii)Ensuring that the feed is of good quality

i)Introduction: This method of animal improvement involves bringing in new animals from other locations or breeds to introduce new genes into the population. This can help to increase genetic diversity and improve the overall health and productivity of the population.

(ii)Selection: Selection involves identifying and breeding animals with desirable traits, such as high milk production or resistance to disease. This is done by selecting the best animals from a population and breeding them to produce offspring with similar desirable traits.

Breeding: Breeding involves mating animals with specific traits to produce offspring with those traits. This can be done through natural mating or through artificial insemination. The goal of breeding is to create a population of animals with desirable traits that can be passed on to future generations.

i. Increase productivity
ii. Improve the quality of animal products
iii. Enhance animal welfare
iv. Increase resistance to disease
v. Increase genetic diversity

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