2023 NECO GCE Agricultural Science Obj & Essay Answers

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(i) Duration of tenure: Leasehold is a land tenure system where the land is leased or rented for a specific period of time, typically ranging from a few years to several decades. This feature allows for flexibility in land use as the tenant has the right to use the land for a fixed period of time but does not have permanent ownership.
(ii) Rent payment: In leasehold, the tenant is required to pay rent to the landowner for the use of the land. The rent may be in the form of cash, crops, or a combination of both. This feature provides income to the landowner and ensures that the tenant has a financial obligation to maintain and improve the land.

(i) Intergenerational transfer: Inheritance allows for the transfer of land ownership from one generation to the next. This ensures continuity in land use and allows families to maintain their connection to the land.
(ii) Customary laws and traditions: Inheritance is often governed by customary laws and traditions, which vary from culture to culture. These laws and traditions determine the rules and procedures for transferring land ownership upon the death of the landowner. This feature reflects the cultural, social, and historical context of a particular society.

(i) Industries provide a market for agricultural products, helping farmers to sell their produce and generate income.
(ii) Industries provide employment opportunities for rural populations, reducing unemployment and poverty.
(iii) Industries contribute to agricultural development through innovations, research, and technology transfer, leading to improved productivity and efficiency.
(iv) Industries provide inputs and services to farmers, such as agricultural machinery, fertilizers, and pest control products, helping to enhance agricultural practices.
(v) Industries contribute to value addition and processing of agricultural products, increasing their market value and profitability.

(i) Plough: A tillage implement used for turning over the soil and breaking up large clods to create a smooth and level seedbed.
(ii) Disc harrow: A tillage implement with rotating discs that cut through the soil, breaking up residues and preparing the soil for planting.
(iii) Cultivator: A tillage implement used for shallow soil cultivation, removing weeds, and loosening the soil surface.
(iv) Rotary tiller: This implement has rotating blades or tines that mix and pulverize the soil, preparing it for planting.

(i) Irrigation: Electrical power can be used to operate pumps and sprinkler systems for watering crops.
(ii) Grain drying: Electrical power can be used to operate grain dryers, which remove excess moisture from harvested crops.
(iii) Milking: Electrical power can be used to operate milking machines, reducing the manual effort required in livestock farming.
(iv) Poultry farming: Electrical power can be used to operate lighting and heating systems, ensuring optimal conditions for poultry production.
(v) Greenhouse farming: Electrical power can be used to operate climate control systems, providing the necessary temperature and humidity levels for plant growth.
(vi) Processing and packaging: Electrical power can be used to operate machinery for processing and packaging agricultural products, improving efficiency and quality control.


(i) Promote the use of organic farming methods, crop rotation, and integrated pest management techniques to minimize soil erosion, nutrient depletion, and chemical pollution.
(ii) Encourage the adoption of conservation agriculture techniques such as minimum tillage, cover cropping, and agroforestry to improve soil health, water retention, and biodiversity.
(iii) Planting of trees and restoration of forests can help in reducing the impact of agriculture on the environment by preventing soil erosion and reducing greenhouse gas emissions.
(iv) Proper planning and zoning of agricultural activities can prevent encroachment on fragile ecosystems and promote sustainable land use practices.

(i) Promote the use of climate-smart agricultural practices such as improved irrigation techniques, drought-tolerant crop varieties, and water harvesting methods to adapt to changing climatic conditions.
(ii) Encouraging farmers to grow a wide variety of crops can help mitigate the risk of crop failure due to unpredictable climate patterns.
(iii) Improved weather forecasting and early warning systems can help farmers anticipate and prepare for extreme weather events such as droughts, floods, and storms.
(iv) Providing farmers with access to affordable agricultural insurance can help them recover from losses caused by unpredictable climate events.

(i) Lack of individual ownership rights: The act vests land ownership in state governors, limiting the rights of individuals and posing challenges in securing land for agriculture and other purposes.
(ii) Complex and cumbersome land acquisition process: The act requires multiple layers of approvals and documentation, leading to delays and corruption in the land acquisition process.
(iii) Inadequate compensation for landowners: The act does not adequately compensate landowners for their land, resulting in disputes and loss of livelihoods.
(iv) Inefficient land administration: The act centralized land administration, leading to bureaucratic bottlenecks and poor management of land resources.
(v) Limited access to land for small-scale farmers: The act favors large-scale commercial farming, making it difficult for small-scale farmers to access land for agriculture.

(i) Wear appropriate personal protective equipment, such as gloves, goggles, and masks, to protect yourself from chemical exposure.
(ii) Follow the manufacturer’s instructions and guidelines for mixing and applying pesticides or herbicides, including the recommended dosage and application rate.
(iii) Avoid spraying near water bodies, sensitive crops, or residential areas to minimize the risk of contamination and drift.

(i) Ensure proper training and certification in tractor operation to prevent accidents and damages.
(ii) Regularly inspect and maintain the tractor, including checking for leaks, worn-out tires, and malfunctioning parts, to ensure safe operation.
(iii) Operate the tractor at safe speeds and be cautious when turning or traveling on uneven terrain to prevent rollovers and accidents.


(i) Ensure that all equipment and materials used in the experiment are properly sterilized before use.
(ii) Implement proper techniques to prevent cross-contamination between samples and to avoid external contamination from the environment or other sources.
(iii) Use proper aseptic technique, such as wearing gloves, using sterile tools, and working in a clean and controlled environment, to minimize the introduction of unwanted microorganisms into the experiment.

(i) Pesticides
(ii) Fertilizers
(iii) Animal Waste
(iv) Irrigation Water

(i) Phytoremediation: The use of plants to remove pollutants from the soil by absorbing and breaking them down.
(ii) Bioremediation: The use of microorganisms to degrade or break down pollutants in the soil.
(iii) Soil Amendments: Applying organic matter, such as compost or manure, to improve soil structure and fertility, promoting the natural breakdown of pollutants.
(iv) Soil Erosion Control: Implementing measures, such as contour plowing or planting cover crops, to prevent soil erosion and the spread of pollutants to other areas.

(i) Adding Organic Matter: Incorporating organic matter, such as compost or manure, into the soil can improve its water-holding capacity and nutrient content.
(ii) Mulching: Applying a layer of organic mulch, such as straw or wood chips, on the soil surface can help to conserve moisture and reduce erosion.
(iii) Amending with Clay: Adding clay to sandy soil can improve its ability to retain water and nutrients.
(iv) Crop Rotation: Practicing crop rotation with leguminous plants can help to improve soil fertility by fixing nitrogen and adding organic matter to the soil.

(i) Rotating crops can help to break the lifecycle of pests and pathogens, reducing their buildup in the soil.
(ii) Implementing good sanitation practices, such as cleaning and disinfecting equipment and tools, can help to prevent the spread of pathogens.
(iii) Proper irrigation practices, such as using water efficiently and avoiding over-irrigation, can help to prevent the buildup of disease-causing organisms in the soil.
(iv) Planting disease-resistant varieties can help to reduce the risk of pathogen buildup and the spread of diseases in the farm.

(i) Pruning
(ii) Weeding
(iii) Tapping
(iv) Fertilization

(i) Environmental Pollution
(ii) Resistance Development
(iii) Non-Target Species Impact
(iv) Residue Buildup

(i) Orchids
(ii) Bonsai Trees
(iii) Foliage Plants (e.g., Ferns)
(iv) Succulents

(i) Encouraging people to plant trees.
(ii) The prohibition of bush burning, the cutting down of timber trees, except with an official permit and the cutting down of trees in a forest reserve.
(iii) Illegal felling of trees should not be encouraged.
(iv) Harvesting of an under-aged tress, that is, the tree could only be harvested when it is about 20 or 25 years old.


(i) Reduced Growth Rates
(ii) Poor Reproductive Performance
(iii) Weight Loss and Emaciation
(iv) Increased Susceptibility to Diseases

(i) Calcium
(ii) Phosphorus

Stud Mating involves the controlled mating of a male animal (stud) with a female in a specific breeding environment. while Pen Mating involves allowing a group of females to freely associate with a male (kept in the same pen or enclosure).

Line Breeding involves breeding animals within the same genetic line or family to concentrate desirable traits. while Cross Breeding involves mating animals from different breeds or genetic lines.

(i) Poor Water Quality
(ii) Overcrowding
(iii) Unbalanced diet

(i) Beeswax
(ii) Propolis
(iii) Royal Jelly

(i) Farm assets refer to the resources owned and controlled by a farm, such as land, buildings, machinery, livestock, and crops. While, farm liabilities are the debts and obligations that a farm has, such as loans, mortgages, and unpaid bills.

(ii) Appreciation refers to the increase in the value of an asset over time due to factors such as inflation, market demand, or improvements made to the asset. While, depreciation refers to the decrease in the value of an asset over time due to factors such as wear and tear, obsolescence, or market conditions.

(i) Income and expense records
(ii) Inventory records
(iii) Production records
(iv) Sales records

(i) Wide reach: Mass media platforms such as television, radio, and the internet have the ability to reach a large audience across different geographical locations.

(ii) Cost-effective: Mass media can be a cost-effective method of agricultural extension as it allows for the dissemination of information to a large audience simultaneously.

(iii) Timeliness: Mass media can quickly deliver information to farmers, ensuring that they have access to the latest agricultural techniques, practices, and market trends in a timely manner.

(iv) Visual and audio impact: Television and online videos, in particular, can provide visual demonstrations of agricultural practices, techniques, and innovations, making it easier for farmers to understand complex concepts.

(i) Economic viability: The economic feasibility of adopting an innovation plays a significant role.

(ii) Access to capital: Availability of financial resources and credit options can influence the adoption of agricultural innovations.

(iii) Infrastructural support: Adequate infrastructure such as irrigation systems, storage facilities, and transportation networks are crucial for the successful adoption of agricultural innovations.

(iv) Knowledge and awareness: Farmers need to have access to relevant information, training, and technical support to understand and effectively adopt new innovations.

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