2023 NECO GCE Geography Essay Answers – Nov/Dec

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INSTRUCTIONS:- Answer two questions in each section





(i) Density: In population ecology, density is a crucial measure to understand how concentrated or dispersed a population is in a given habitat. It is calculated by dividing the population size by the available habitat space.
High population density can lead to increased competition for resources, potential for disease transmission, and higher predation rates. Low population density may result in challenges related to finding mates or maintaining genetic diversity.

(ii) Migration: Migration has a significant impact on population dynamics. Immigration (incoming movement) and emigration (outgoing movement) affect population size and composition. Migration can be seasonal or driven by factors such as resource availability or breeding opportunities.
Migration can influence the genetic diversity of a population, introduce new individuals with different traits, and affect overall population stability.

(iii) Growth Rate: The growth rate considers factors such as birth rates, death rates, immigration, and emigration. It helps predict how quickly a population is increasing or decreasing.
A positive growth rate indicates population increase, while a negative growth rate suggests a decline. Understanding growth rates is essential for managing resources, predicting future population sizes, and implementing conservation measures.

(iv) Movement: Movement is crucial for activities such as foraging, finding mates, avoiding predators, or responding to environmental changes. It includes short-term movements within a habitat and long-term movements between habitats.
Movement patterns influence the spatial distribution of a population, resource utilization, and interactions with other species. It is vital for maintaining ecological balance and adapting to changing environmental conditions.

(I) Health and Disease: The prevalence of diseases within a population can significantly impact its quality. High levels of infectious diseases or chronic health issues can reduce the overall well-being of individuals and affect population vitality.

(ii) Education and Skill Levels: The education and skill levels of a population contribute to its quality. Higher levels of education often correlate with better employment opportunities, improved decision-making, and increased adaptability to changing economic conditions.

(iii) Economic Status: The economic status of individuals within a population influences their access to resources, healthcare, and overall living standards. Higher economic status is associated with better living conditions and improved quality of life.

(iv) Environmental Quality: The quality of the environment in which a population resides plays a crucial role. Factors such as air and water quality, access to green spaces, and exposure to pollutants can impact the health and well-being of individuals within a population.


(i) Economic Impact: Tourism significantly contributes to the economy of a region or country. It creates employment opportunities across various sectors such as hospitality, transportation, entertainment, and local businesses. Tourists spend money on accommodations, food, transportation, souvenirs, and experiences, injecting capital directly into the local economy. This influx of money can stimulate growth in infrastructure development, support small businesses, and foster economic stability in areas heavily reliant on tourism.

(ii) Cultural Exchange and Understanding: Tourism fosters cultural exchange by exposing travelers to different cultures, traditions, languages, and lifestyles. Interactions between tourists and local communities promote understanding, tolerance, and appreciation of diversity. It encourages the preservation of cultural heritage, traditions, and historical sites as they become significant attractions for visitors. This exchange of ideas and values can lead to increased global understanding and cooperation, contributing to a more interconnected and empathetic world.

(i) Infrastructure Deficiency
(ii) Security Concerns
(iii) Lack of Promotion and Marketing
(iv) Underdeveloped Tourist Services

(i) Investment in Infrastructure: The government and private sector should collaborate to improve infrastructure in tourist areas. This includes upgrading roads, enhancing transportation systems, ensuring access to clean water and electricity, and developing tourist facilities to enhance the overall experience.
(ii) Enhanced Security Measures: Implementing robust security measures and strategies in tourist areas can help alleviate safety concerns. This involves increased law enforcement presence, better surveillance, and efforts to address underlying causes of insecurity in the country.
(iii) Effective Promotion and Marketing: Develop comprehensive marketing campaigns to promote Nigeria’s diverse tourist attractions domestically and internationally. Leveraging digital platforms, social media, and participating in global tourism events can increase awareness and attract more tourists.
(iv) Capacity Building and Training: Invest in training programs to enhance the skills of tourism industry personnel such as tour guides, hotel staff, and service providers. Improving the quality of services will contribute to a better overall tourist experience, leading to increased satisfaction and return visits.


(3a) Localization of industry refers to the concentration or clustering of industrial activities and enterprises in a specific geographical area or region. This phenomenon occurs when certain factors make a particular location attractive for the establishment and growth of industrial activities, leading to the development of an industrial cluster.


(I) Economies of Scale: The concentration of industries in a specific area allows for the realization of economies of scale. As multiple firms share resources, infrastructure, and services, they can achieve cost advantages in production, leading to increased efficiency and competitiveness.

(ii) Access to Skilled Labor: Industrial clusters attract a pool of skilled labor to the region. The presence of multiple industries fosters the development of a skilled workforce, promoting knowledge transfer, innovation, and a higher level of expertise in the local labor market.

(iii) Innovation and Technology Spillovers: Proximity of industries encourages the exchange of ideas, technologies, and innovations. This creates a collaborative environment where advancements in one industry can benefit others, fostering technological spillovers and overall industrial growth.

(iv) Infrastructure Development: The localization of industries often leads to the development of necessary infrastructure, including transportation networks, utilities, and communication systems. This not only supports the industries directly but also enhances the overall development of the region.

(v) Cluster Effect and Agglomeration Benefits: The clustering of industries creates a cluster effect, where related and supporting businesses and services thrive. This agglomeration benefits companies through shared resources, specialized suppliers, and a more efficient supply chain.

(vi) Research and Development (R&D) Collaboration: Proximity facilitates collaboration in research and development activities. Industries located in close proximity can engage in joint R&D efforts, leading to the creation of innovative products and processes.

(vii) Market Access: Industrial clusters often have better access to markets. Concentrated industries can benefit from shared distribution networks, reducing transportation costs and making it easier to reach consumers.

(viii) Increased Competitiveness: The localization of industries enhances competitiveness. Companies within an industrial cluster can benchmark against each other, leading to increased efficiency, quality standards, and competitiveness in the global market.


(I) Steel Industry

(ii) Chemical Manufacturing

(iii) Shipbuilding Industry

(iv) Aerospace Industry




(I) Climate: The Zaria area has a tropical climate with distinct wet and dry seasons, providing suitable conditions for cotton cultivation. Cotton requires a warm climate with adequate sunlight and a well-defined growing season.

(ii) Soil Type: Cotton thrives in well-drained soils with good aeration. The Zaria area has soils that are suitable for cotton production, with a preference for loamy or sandy loam soils.

(iii) Temperature: Cotton plants prefer warm temperatures for optimal growth. The Zaria area experiences elevated temperatures, particularly during the growing season, which is favorable for cotton cultivation.

(iv) Rainfall Distribution: Cotton cultivation requires a specific pattern of rainfall, with a distinct rainy season for planting and a drier season for harvesting. The Zaria area’s seasonal rainfall pattern is conducive to the different stages of cotton growth.

(v) Altitude: Cotton cultivation is typically suited to lower altitudes. The Zaria area’s altitude is within the appropriate range for cotton production, contributing to the favorable conditions for cultivation.

(vi) Sunlight Exposure: Cotton plants require ample sunlight for photosynthesis and the development of cotton fibers. The Zaria area’s sunny conditions contribute to the healthy growth of cotton plants.

(vii) Topography: The topography of the Zaria area is generally flat to gently undulating, providing suitable terrain for cotton cultivation and mechanized farming practices.

(viii) Water Availability: Cotton requires consistent water availability, particularly during the critical stages of growth. The Zaria area has access to water sources, and irrigation can be employed during periods of insufficient rainfall to support cotton crops.


(I) Foreign Exchange Earnings: Groundnut is a major export commodity, contributing significantly to Nigeria’s foreign exchange earnings. Groundnut exports generate income and help balance the country’s trade.

(ii) Employment Generation: Groundnut production provides employment opportunities, especially in rural areas where farming is a primary economic activity. It engages a large number of people in farming, processing, and marketing.

(iii) Source of Protein: Groundnut is a valuable source of protein, both for domestic consumption and as a raw material for livestock feed. The availability of groundnut enhances protein intake, contributing to improved nutrition.

(iv) Industrial Raw Material: Groundnut serves as a raw material for various industries. It is used in the production of edible oils, margarine, soap, and other industrial products. The oil extraction industry derived from groundnut adds value to the economy.

(v) Rural Development: Groundnut cultivation contributes to the development of rural areas by providing income opportunities for farmers. The income generated supports local economies and helps lift communities out of poverty.

(vi) Diversification of Agriculture: Groundnut production contributes to the diversification of agriculture in Nigeria. It is part of a diverse agricultural landscape that enhances resilience against the risks associated with mono-cropping.

(vii) Soil Improvement: Groundnut is a leguminous crop that enriches the soil by fixing nitrogen. Rotation with groundnut improves soil fertility, benefiting subsequent crops and promoting sustainable agricultural practices.

(viii) Source of Cooking Oil: Groundnut oil is a popular cooking oil in Nigeria. The availability of locally produced groundnut oil reduces the country’s dependence on imported cooking oils, contributing to food security.


(i) Access to Ports: The western industrial zone, particularly Lagos and its environs, is strategically located close to major ports such as Apapa and Tin Can Island Ports. This proximity allows for easy importation and exportation of goods and raw materials, reducing transportation costs and ensuring efficient supply chain management for industries located in the area.
(ii) Infrastructure: The western industrial zone has better infrastructure compared to other parts of Nigeria. It has well-developed road networks, airports, and railway systems that facilitate the movement of goods and people.
(iii) Availability of Skilled Labor: The western industrial zone is home to several higher education institutions, technical colleges, and vocational training centers. This concentration of educational institutions has created a pool of skilled labor in various fields such as engineering, technology, and management. Industries in the area benefit from this availability of skilled human resources, which contributes to their growth and success.
(iv) Market Access: The western industrial zone has a large consumer market due to its high population density and urbanization. Lagos, as the economic center of Nigeria, attracts people from all over the country, creating a demand for various goods and services.

(i) Poor Infrastructure
(ii) Inconsistent Government Policies
(iii) Poor Access to Finance
(iv) Inadequate Skills and Workforce Development

(i) Improve Infrastructure: The government should prioritize infrastructure development, including improving road networks, expanding power generation and distribution, and providing reliable water and sanitation services. Public-private partnerships can be encouraged to attract investments in infrastructure.
(ii) Stable and Transparent Policies: The government should provide a stable and predictable policy environment that encourages long-term planning and investment. Policy formulation should be inclusive, involving input from all stakeholders, and policy changes should be communicated in advance, giving industries time to adapt.
(iii) Access to Finance: The government should work with financial institutions to develop financing schemes specifically tailored for the industrial sector. This could include the provision of low-interest loans, guarantees for industrial projects, and the creation of a specialized industrial development bank.
(iv) Enhance Skills and Workforce Development: The government should collaborate with educational institutions and industries to align the curricula with the needs of the industrial sector. Vocational training programs should be promoted to provide practical skills and apprenticeship opportunities for young people.


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