2023 NECO GCE History Obj & Essay Answers – Nov/Dec

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(i) Decentralized Governance: Non-centralized communities in Nigeria typically operate on a system of decentralized governance. Decision-making power is distributed among traditional rulers, community leaders, and elders, who are responsible for maintaining law and order, resolving disputes, and administering community affairs.

(ii) Traditional Leadership: These communities are often led by traditional rulers who inherit their positions and exercise authority based on cultural and customary practices. Traditional leaders play a crucial role in preserving the cultural heritage, settling conflicts, and providing guidance to the community.

(iii) Communal Ownership of Land: Non-centralized communities in Nigeria usually practice communal land ownership. Land is considered a communal resource and is allocated and used for various purposes, such as agriculture, housing, and community development projects. The community as a whole is responsible for managing and regulating land use.

(iv) Strong Cultural Identity: Non-centralized communities in Nigeria often possess a strong cultural identity, rooted in traditions, customs, and local beliefs. Cultural activities, such as festivals, rituals, and ceremonies, play a significant role in strengthening community bonds and passing down cultural knowledge from one generation to another.

(v) Social Cohesion and Solidarity: These communities exhibit a high level of social cohesion and solidarity. Members of the community often share close social bonds, cooperative relationships, and collective responsibility. There is a strong sense of mutual support and interdependence among community members.

(vi) Subsistence Agriculture: Non-centralized communities in Nigeria rely primarily on subsistence agriculture for their livelihoods. Agriculture serves as the main economic activity, with farming practices usually focused on small-scale food production for local consumption rather than commercial purposes.

(i) Introduction of cash-crop agriculture: The colonial administration encouraged the production of cash crops, such as palm oil, cocoa, and rubber, for exports to Europe

(ii) Expansion of mining and extraction: Colonial rule led to the expansion and intensification of mining activities in Nigeria, particularly in areas such as coal, tin, and later oil. The colonial authorities granted mining concessions to European companies, allowing them to exploit Nigeria’s mineral resources for their own profit.

(iii) Control of land and resources: The colonial administration implemented policies that resulted in the displacement of indigenous communities from their ancestral lands, allowing for the establishment of large-scale plantations and mining operations. This control over land and resources enabled the extraction and exploitation of Nigeria’s natural resources by foreign powers.

(iv) Export-oriented economy: Under colonial rule, Nigeria’s economy was transformed into a largely export-oriented system. The focus was on extracting and exporting raw materials to meet the demands of the colonial powers, rather than developing local industries and value-added production. This further intensified the exploitation of Nigeria’s natural resources for the benefit of the colonial powers.

(v) Limited local participation: The colonial administration restricted the participation of Nigerians in the management and control of their own natural resources. European companies dominated the extraction and export of these resources, with little regard for the rights and interests of the local population. This lack of local participation further deepened the exploitation of Nigeria’s natural resources.

(vi) Environmental degradation: The intensive exploitation of Nigeria’s natural resources under colonial rule often resulted in environmental degradation. For example, deforestation and soil erosion occurred due to the expansion of cash-crop agriculture, while oil extraction activities have led to pollution of water sources and destruction of ecosystems. This environmental degradation continues to have negative impacts on the country’s natural resources and the livelihoods of its people.

(i) Colonial administration: The indirect rule system in Nigeria involved the use of traditional authorities to help administer colonial rule. British officials would appoint native rulers, known as warrant chiefs, to serve as intermediaries between the local population and the colonial administration.

(ii) Preservation of traditional authority: The indirect rule system aimed to preserve and maintain the existing social and political structures in Nigeria. Native rulers were chosen based on their influence and status within their communities, which helped maintain stability and continuity.

(iii) Tribal and regional focus: The indirect rule system was implemented on a tribal and regional basis, with different native rulers being appointed in different areas. This approach recognized and respected the diversity of Nigerian societies and allowed for a more localized administration.

(iv) Consensus-based decision making: The native rulers under the indirect rule system were expected to consult with local councils, comprised of influential local leaders and elders, before making decisions. This ensured that decisions were made collectively and considered the opinions and interests of the local population.

(v) Limited direct British intervention: The indirect rule system aimed to minimize direct British intervention in the day-to-day affairs of the Nigerian people. British officials provided guidance and oversight to the native rulers but generally allowed them to govern their communities according to local customs and traditions.

(vi) Legal system: The indirect rule system also introduced a system of courts and law enforcement mechanisms at the local level. Native courts were established to handle customary cases and resolve disputes according to traditional laws and practices.

(i) Political Instability: Nigeria’s first republic, which lastedfrom 1960 to 1966, was plagued by frequent changes in government and instability. The ruling political parties were often divided along regional and ethnic lines, leading to power struggles and conflicts. In addition, there were allegations of corruption and mismanagement of public resources, which further undermined the legitimacy of the government.

(ii) Ethnic Tensions: Nigeria is a diverse country with over 250 ethnic groups, and during the first republic, ethnic tensions were significant. The country was divided into three regions, each dominated by different ethnic groups. This led to competition for resources and power, and in some cases, violence erupted between ethnic communities. The military, seeing themselves as a neutral force, believed they could restore order and protect the unity of the country.

(iii) Poor Governance: The civilian government during the first republic faced numerous challenges in governing effectively. There was a lack of accountability and transparency, resulting in widespread corruption and embezzlement of public funds. This led to a decline in public trust and contributed to the military’s argument that a strong, disciplined government was needed to restore order and promote development.

(vi) Economic Crisis: Nigeria experienced economic difficulties during the first republic, with declining revenues from oil exports and a struggling agricultural sector. The government’s inability to address these economic challenges further eroded public confidence. The military argued that they were better equipped to manage the economy and implement necessary reforms.

(v) Military’s Perception of Duty: The Nigerian military saw itself as a guardian of the nation and believed it had a duty to intervene and restore order when the civilian government failed to do so. There was a growing frustration within the military ranks about the state of the country and the perceived incompetence of the civilian leadership.

(i) Loss of lifeThe Nigerian Civil War resulted in a significant loss of life on both sides of the conflict. It is estimated that between one and three million people lost their lives during the war, primarily due to famine and disease. The war was marked by intense fighting and the use of brutal tactics by both the Nigerian government forces and the breakaway Biafran secessionists. Civilian casualties were particularly high, with reports of mass killings and widespread atrocities. The loss of so many lives was a tragic consequence of the conflict, leaving a lasting impact on the country.

(ii) Economic devastation
The war had a devastating impact on Nigeria’s economy. The country was heavily reliant on oil revenues, and the conflict disrupted oil production and distribution. As a result, Nigeria experienced a severe economic downturn, with inflation rates soaring and shortages of essential goods and services. The war also caused significant damage to infrastructure, including roads, bridges, and buildings, further exacerbating economic challenges. The post-war reconstruction efforts were expensive and time-consuming, hampering Nigeria’s economic development for years to come.

(iii) Ethnic tensions and division
The Nigerian Civil War was rooted in deep ethnic tensions and divisions within the country. The conflict was primarily fought between the Nigerian government, dominated by the Hausa-Fulani ethnic group, and the breakaway state of Biafra, populated mostly by the Igbo ethnic group. The war heightened these ethnic divisions and created a lasting sense of mistrust and animosity between different ethnic groups in Nigeria. This has had long-lasting political and social consequences, with ethnic tensions still present in Nigerian society today.

(iv) Humanitarian crisis
The war caused a severe humanitarian crisis, with millions of people displaced from their homes and forced to flee due to the fighting. Many civilians, particularly children, suffered from malnutrition and disease due to the lack of access to food, clean water, and healthcare. The Nigerian government imposed a blockade on Biafra, leading to a humanitarian disaster as aid agencies struggled to reach those in need. International efforts to provide humanitarian assistance were hindered by the government’s reluctance to allow food and medical supplies into the area. The war highlighted the urgent need for humanitarian intervention and strengthened the international community’s commitment to providing assistance in times of crisis.

(v) Political consequences
The Nigerian Civil War had significant political consequences for the country. Following the war, Nigeria returned to a centralized government structure, with power concentrated in the federal government. This led to a consolidation of power and limited autonomy for minority ethnic groups, contributing to ongoing grievances and conflicts in later years. Additionally, the war solidified Nigeria’s position as a major regional power in West Africa and shaped its foreign policy in subsequent decades.

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