2023 WAEC GCE History (Essay & Objective) Answers

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(i) Artistic Expression: Bronze work allowed the people of pre-colonial Nigeria to express their creativity and artistic skills. Intricate sculptures, masks, and other bronze artifacts showcased their cultural heritage and artistic traditions.

(ii) Cultural Identity: Bronze work played a crucial role in shaping and preserving the cultural identity of different ethnic groups in Nigeria. It represented their history, beliefs, and social structures, serving as a tangible link to their ancestors and cultural roots.

(iii) Status and Prestige: Bronze objects were often associated with wealth, power, and social status. Owning or commissioning bronze artwork demonstrated one’s affluence and influence within the community, contributing to social standing and prestige.

(iv) Ritual and Ceremonial Use: Bronze artifacts were used in various religious and ceremonial practices. They played a role in ancestral worship, initiation ceremonies, and other rituals, symbolizing the connection between the spiritual and physical realms.

(v) Trade and Economic Significance: The production and trade of bronze objects contributed to economic prosperity in pre-colonial Nigeria. Skilled bronze craftsmen and their workshops became important centers of commerce, attracting traders from neighboring regions.

(i) Rich Artistic Heritage: The Benin culture is known for its intricate and exquisite artwork, including bronze sculptures, wood carvings, and elaborate beadwork. These art forms often depict historical events, royalty, and spiritual beliefs.

(ii) Monarchical System: The Benin culture has a long-standing tradition of monarchy, with the Oba (king) serving as the central figure. The Oba holds significant power and is revered as a custodian of cultural heritage and a symbol of unity.

(iii) Festivals and Celebrations: Benin culture is vibrant and celebrates various festivals throughout the year. Festivals like the Igue Festival and the Ugie Festival showcase traditional dances, music, costumes, and rituals, bringing the community together in joyous celebrations.

(iv) Oral Tradition: Benin culture values oral tradition as a means of preserving history and passing down knowledge from generation to generation. Stories, proverbs, and folktales play a crucial role in transmitting cultural values, wisdom, and moral lessons.

(v) Respect for Ancestors: Ancestor worship is an integral part of Benin culture. Ancestors are believed to have a continued presence and influence in the lives of the living. Rituals and ceremonies are performed to honor and seek guidance from ancestors.



(i) Preservation of cultural heritage: History helps to preserve and pass on the cultural heritage of Nigeria to future generations, fostering a sense of pride and identity.

(ii) Understanding the past: Studying history allows students to understand how past events have shaped the present, providing context and insights into contemporary issues.

(iii) Critical thinking skills: History encourages critical thinking and analysis as students evaluate and interpret different perspectives, evidence, and sources of information.

(iv) Developing empathy and tolerance: Learning about different historical eras and cultures fosters empathy, understanding, and tolerance for diverse perspectives and experiences.

(v) Citizenship education: History education instills a sense of civic responsibility and active citizenship, empowering students to participate in democratic processes and contribute positively to society.

(vi) Historical literacy: Teaching history helps students develop the skills to navigate and understand historical documents, primary sources, and secondary texts, enhancing their overall literacy.

(vii) Enhancing research skills: The study of history requires students to conduct research, analyze evidence, and construct coherent arguments, honing their research and analytical skills.

(viii) Global awareness: History education provides students with a broader understanding of global events, interconnectedness, and the significance of Nigeria’s place in the world.

(ix) Appreciation of diversity: Through studying history, students gain an appreciation for the diversity of cultures, religions, and traditions within Nigeria and beyond.

(x) Learning from past mistakes: History enables students to learn from past mistakes and achievements, empowering them to make informed decisions and contribute to the development and progress of society.



(i) Islamic Rulership: The Sokoto Caliphate was established as an Islamic state with its leadership held by the Caliph, who was both a political and religious authority.

(ii) Leadership of Usman dan Fodio: The Caliphate was founded by Usman dan Fodio, a prominent Islamic scholar and reformer who led a revolt against the Hausa rulers in northern Nigeria.

(iii) Spread of Islam: One of the primary aims of the Sokoto Caliphate was to propagate the Islamic faith and implement Sharia law across the region. This led to the conversion of many people to Islam.

(iv) Political Centralization: The Caliphate brought together various Hausa States under one centralized government, effectively establishing a unified political entity.

(v) Administrative Structure: The Sokoto Caliphate had a hierarchical administrative structure divided into emirates, provinces, districts, and villages, with appointed officials responsible for governance at each level.

(vi) Jihad: The establishment and expansion of the Caliphate were achieved through jihad, or holy war, in which the forces of Usman dan Fodio sought to overthrow the existing rulers and establish Islamic governance.

(vii) Military Organization: The Caliphate developed a sophisticated military organization, including cavalry, infantry, and artillery units, which played a crucial role in the expansion and defense of the state.

(viii) Trade and Economy: The Sokoto Caliphate fostered trade and economic development, particularly in agriculture and textiles, which contributed to the prosperity and growth of the region.

(ix) Education and Scholarship: The Caliphate encouraged Islamic education and scholarship, establishing Quranic schools and promoting the study of Arabic and Islamic sciences.

(x) Cultural Influence: The Sokoto Caliphate had a significant cultural impact, fostering the development of Hausa literature, music, and art, as well as Islamic architecture and calligraphy.


(i) Shehu Ali Dikko
(ii) Shehu Kyari El-Kanemi
(iii) Shehu Abubakar Garbai El-Kanemi
(iv) Shehu Sanda Kyarimi
(v) Shehu Mustapha Ibn Umar El-Kanemi
(vi) Shehu Abubakar Ibn Umar Garbai El-Kanemi

(i) External threats: The Shehus had to deal with invasions and attacks from neighboring states, such as the Fulani Empire and the Sokoto Caliphate. These conflicts posed a constant threat to the stability and security of Borno.

(ii) Internal rebellions: The Shehus often faced internal opposition from dissident factions and ambitious local leaders. These rebellions challenged the central authority of the Shehu and sometimes even led to the fragmentation of the Borno Empire.

(iii) Political instability: Succession disputes and power struggles within the ruling family and among the nobles created political instability. These internal conflicts weakened the Shehu’s hold on power and hindered effective governance.

(iv) Economic decline: Borno experienced a decline in trade routes and the disruption of trans-Saharan trade during this period. This had a negative impact on the economy, leading to financial difficulties and the loss of revenue for the Shehu.

(v) Drought and famine: The 19th century witnessed severe droughts and periodic famines in the Sahel region, including Borno. These natural disasters resulted in widespread hunger, loss of livestock, and economic hardship for the population, which the Shehu had to manage.

(vi) Social unrest: Social divisions and tensions between different ethnic and social groups within Borno posed challenges for the Shehu’s administration. Managing these conflicts and maintaining social cohesion required significant effort.

(vii) Influence of European powers: As European powers expanded their presence in Africa, Borno, like many other African states, faced political pressures and the encroachment of imperial interests. The Shehus had to navigate diplomatic relationships and deal with European intervention.

(viii) Islamic reform movements: The rise of Islamic movements, such as the Sokoto Caliphate, brought ideological challenges and competition for religious authority within Borno. These movements aimed to reform and impose their own versions of Islam, often clashing with the traditional practices of the Shehu.



(i) Colonialism: The establishment of British colonial rule in Nigeria provided a conducive environment for Christian missionaries to operate and spread their message.

(ii) Linguistic Advantage: Many Christian missionaries were able to communicate with Nigerians in their local languages, making it easier to convey the Christian teachings and establish a connection with the local population.

(iii) Conversion of Local Chiefs and Rulers: The conversion of influential local chiefs and rulers to Christianity helped in gaining support from the communities they governed, leading to the widespread acceptance of Christianity in their domains.

(iv) Translation of the Bible: Christian missionaries translated the Bible into various Nigerian languages, making it accessible to the local population and facilitating conversion efforts.

(v) Educational Initiatives: Missionaries established schools and educational institutions, which served as centers for both religious instruction and Western education. This attracted many Nigerians to convert to Christianity and receive an education.

(vi) Medical Services: Christian missionaries provided healthcare services to the local population, which enhanced their reputation and goodwill among Nigerians.

(vii) Cultural Adaptation: Christian missionaries adapted and incorporated elements of Nigerian culture into their religious practices, making Christianity more relatable and acceptable to the local communities.

(viii) Transportation and Communication: The development of transportation networks, such as railways and telegraph lines, facilitated the movement of missionaries across Nigeria and improved communication with their home organizations.

(ix) Support from British Government: The British colonial government often supported and protected Christian missionaries, providing them with resources, land, and legal backing.

(x) Anti-Slavery Stance: Christian missionaries actively campaigned against the slave trade, aligning themselves with the abolitionist movement. This stance gained them favor and support from many Nigerians who opposed the slave trade.


(i) Liberia
(ii) Sierra Leone
(iii) Sudan
(iv) Mali
(v) Côte d’Ivoire
(vi) Democratic Republic of Congo

(i) Economic Influence: Nigeria has the largest economy in Africa, which positions it as an economic powerhouse and a key player in driving regional economic growth.

(ii) Peacekeeping Operations: Nigeria has consistently contributed troops to several United Nations and African Union peacekeeping operations across the continent, demonstrating its commitment to regional stability.

(iii) Political Diplomacy: Nigeria has actively engaged in diplomatic efforts to address political crises in various African countries, including mediating in conflicts and participating in peace negotiations.

(iv) Regional Integration: Nigeria has taken part in initiatives aimed at promoting regional integration, such as the establishment of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) and the African Union (AU).

(v) Anti-Corruption Efforts: Nigeria has taken steps to combat corruption within its borders, setting a precedent for other African nations in their fight against corruption and improving governance.

(vi) Promotion of Democracy: Nigeria has transitioned from military to civilian rule and has conducted multiple successful national elections, setting an example for democratic governance in Africa.

(vii) Educational Hub: Nigeria is home to numerous universities and educational institutions that attract students from various African countries, contributing to human capital development in the region.

(viii) Cultural Influence: Nigerian entertainment, including Nollywood films and Afrobeats music, has gained popularity across Africa, playing a significant role in promoting African cultural heritage and soft power.


(i) *Political Instability:* Nigeria experienced periods of political instability, including coups and changes in government, which created an environment where corruption could thrive. Frequent changes in leadership often disrupted governance and allowed corrupt practices to go unchecked.

(ii) *Weak Institutions:* The public institutions responsible for enforcing regulations and preventing corruption were often weakened by factors such as inadequate funding, lack of autonomy, and political interference. This weakened institutional framework made it easier for corruption to permeate various sectors.

(iii) *Inadequate Legal Frameworks:* Weak or poorly enforced legal frameworks failed to deter corruption effectively. The absence of stringent anti-corruption laws, coupled with ineffective law enforcement, allowed individuals to engage in corrupt practices with minimal fear of consequences.

(iv) *Lack of Transparency:* Transparency in government operations and financial transactions was often lacking. Without proper mechanisms for accountability and openness, it became easier for corrupt individuals to manipulate and divert public funds for personal gain without public scrutiny.

(v) *Poverty:* High levels of poverty contributed to corruption as public officials, facing low salaries, might resort to corrupt practices to supplement their income. Poverty also made citizens more vulnerable to bribery, creating a cycle of corruption that affected both the public sector and society at large.

(i) Economic Cooperation: ECOWAS fosters economic integration, providing Nigeria with a larger market and facilitating trade, leading to increased economic opportunities and growth.

(ii) Trade Facilitation: ECOWAS initiatives, like the ECOWAS Trade Liberalization Scheme (ETLS), reduce trade barriers among member states, promoting easier movement of goods and services and enhancing Nigeria’s economic competitiveness.

(iii) Regional Security: ECOWAS plays a role in maintaining regional stability and security. Collaborative efforts help address security challenges, contributing to a safer environment for Nigeria’s development.

(iv) Infrastructure Development: Joint infrastructure projects within ECOWAS can improve transportation, energy, and communication networks, benefiting Nigeria by enhancing connectivity and supporting economic activities.

(v) Political Stability: ECOWAS contributes to political stability through conflict prevention and resolution mechanisms, ensuring a conducive environment for governance and development in Nigeria.

(vi) Human Capital Development: Collaborative programs in education and healthcare within ECOWAS can lead to improved human capital, contributing to a skilled workforce and better health outcomes for Nigeria.

(vii) Investment Promotion: ECOWAS initiatives attract foreign investment by presenting a unified and stable market. This influx of investment can stimulate economic development in Nigeria.

(viii) Crisis Response: ECOWAS provides a framework for coordinated responses to crises, such as natural disasters or health emergencies, enabling member states, including Nigeria, to receive support during challenging times.

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