NABTEB GCE 2023 Office Practice Obj & Essays Answers – Nov/Dec

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(i) Money order
(ii) Standing order
(iii) Promissory note
(iv) Bank draft
(vi) Bill of exchange

(i) Money Order: A money order is a prepaid payment order with a specific monetary value, typically issued by postal services or financial institutions, allowing the recipient to receive the designated amount in cash or deposit it into a bank account.

(ii) Standing Order: A standing order is a financial instruction given by an account holder to their bank, directing the bank to make regular, fixed payments at predetermined intervals to a specified recipient.

(iii) Promissory Note: A promissory note is a written, unconditional promise made by one party (the issuer or maker) to pay a specified sum of money to another party (the payee) either on-demand or at a predetermined future date.

(iv) Bank Draft: A bank draft is a payment instrument issued by a bank on behalf of a customer, directing the bank itself or another bank to pay a specified sum to a third party. It provides a secure means of payment.

(v) Bill of Exchange: A bill of exchange is a written order by one party (the drawer) to another party (the drawee), requiring the drawee to pay a specified sum of money to a third party (the payee) at a future date or upon demand.


A cheque is a written, unconditional order issued by an account holder (drawer) to their bank, directing the bank to pay a specified sum of money to the person or entity named on the cheque (payee).

(i) Cheques offer a convenient and widely accepted method of making payments, allowing for easy transactions without the need for physical cash.
(ii) Cheque payments provide a tangible record of financial transactions, offering a clear and traceable documentation of payments made.
(iii) Cheques allow for delayed payment, giving the drawer some flexibility in managing their cash flow and ensuring funds are available when the cheque is presented for payment.

(i) Insufficient funds in the drawer’s account;
(ii) Irregular signature of the drawer;
(iii) Omission of the date on the cheque
(iv) When the amount in the figure differs from the amount in words
(v) If there is any alteration that is not endorsed
(vi) When the cheque is stale
(vii) If the cheque is not signed by the drawer,
(viii) When a post-dated cheque is presented for payment before the due date
(ix) When the bank is notified about the death of the drawer.
(x) When the drawer directs the bank not to honour the cheque.
(xi) When the bank is notified about the insanity of the drawer.


Office machines are devices designed to perform specific tasks or functions, often powered by electricity or other energy sources. Examples: Computers, printers, photocopiers, fax machines, and calculators.
On the other hand, Office equipment refers to a broader category of tools, furnishings, and devices used in an office setting to support various tasks and operations. Examples: Furniture, filing cabinets, staplers, paper shredders, and telephones.

(i) Delivery Note: It is a document accompanying goods being delivered, providing details such as the type and quantity of items, helping in verifying the receipt of the correct products.
(ii) Advice Note: It informs the recipient about the shipment of goods, providing details about the consignment and enabling proper tracking.
(iii) Credit Note: It is issued by a seller to a buyer to indicate a reduction in the amount payable due to reasons such as returned goods, overpayment, or a negotiated discount. It serves as a record of the credit transaction.


Office layout refers to the arrangement and organization of physical elements within an office space, including the positioning of furniture, workstations, equipment, and other resources to optimize workflow, communication, and efficiency.

(i) Space Utilization: Efficient use of available space to accommodate workstations, meeting areas, and common spaces, ensuring a balance between functionality and comfort.
(ii) Workflow and Communication: Arranging workstations and departments to facilitate smooth workflow and effective communication among employees, minimizing bottlenecks and enhancing collaboration.
(iii) Flexibility and Expansion: Designing the layout to allow for flexibility and scalability, enabling easy adaptation to changing business needs and future expansion.
(iv) Ergonomics: Considering ergonomic principles in the placement of furniture and workstations to promote employee well-being, reduce fatigue, and enhance productivity.
(v) Aesthetics and Atmosphere: Creating a visually appealing and comfortable work environment that reflects the company’s culture and enhances the overall atmosphere to boost employee morale.
(vi) Technology Integration: Incorporating technology infrastructure, such as power outlets, data ports, and networking capabilities, to support the integration of modern office technologies and devices.


Recruitment is the process of actively searching for, identifying, and attracting qualified candidates to fill job vacancies within an organization.

(i) Advertising
(ii) Internal Promotion
(iii) Recruitment Agencies
(iv) Employee Referrals

(i) Advertising: This involves promoting job openings through various channels such as newspapers, online job boards, company websites, and social media platforms to reach a wide audience and attract potential candidates.
(ii) Internal Promotion: Identifying and promoting existing employees within the organization who have demonstrated the skills and qualifications necessary for the vacant position, encouraging career growth and loyalty.
(iii) Recruitment Agencies: Utilizing the services of external recruitment agencies or headhunters who specialize in sourcing and identifying suitable candidates for specific roles, particularly for specialized or executive positions.
(iv) Employee Referrals: Encouraging current employees to refer qualified candidates for job openings within the organization, leveraging existing networks and promoting a sense of employee involvement in the recruitment process.


(6a) Agenda:
An agenda is a structured list of items or topics to be discussed or addressed during a meeting. It serves as a guide for the participants, outlining the order of business, and helps ensure that important matters are covered efficiently.

(6b) Resolution:
A resolution is a formal decision or course of action adopted by a group or assembly, often after discussion and voting. Resolutions are typically passed during meetings and serve as an official statement of the group’s stance or intention.

(6c) Committee Meeting:
A committee meeting is a gathering of a subgroup within an organization, formed to address specific tasks, make decisions, or conduct detailed discussions on particular issues. Committee meetings often precede larger meetings and play a crucial role in organizational decision-making.

(6d) Quorum:
Quorum refers to the minimum number of members required to be present at a meeting for it to be valid and conduct official business. It ensures that decisions are made with a representative group, preventing a minority from making decisions on behalf of the entire organization.

(6e) Formal Meeting:
A formal meeting is a structured and organized gathering where participants follow established procedures, such as parliamentary rules, to conduct business. Formal meetings often have a set agenda, minutes are recorded, and decisions are made through a systematic process, ensuring order and efficiency.


Filing is the systematic and organized process of arranging and storing documents or records in a way that facilitates easy retrieval, reference, and maintenance within an office or organizational setting.

(i) Accessibility
(ii) Security
(iii) Flexibility
(iv) Consistency
(v) Durability
(vi) Simplicity
(vii) Easy Location
(viii) Economical

(i) Accessibility: A good filing system should be arranged in such a way that the records are easily available whenever required. The filing system should allow the insertion of additional documents without disturbing the existing order of files.

(ii) Security: A good filing system incorporates measures to protect sensitive or confidential information, ensuring that only authorized personnel have access to certain documents.

(iii) Flexibility: The filing system should be adaptable to accommodate growth, changes, and updates in the organization, allowing for the inclusion of new documents and the removal of obsolete ones.

(iv) Consistency: Consistency in labeling, indexing, and filing procedures is essential for the smooth functioning of the system, preventing confusion and ensuring uniformity in document management.

(v) Durability: Documents should be stored in durable and suitable containers or folders to prevent damage, deterioration, or loss over time, ensuring the long-term preservation of important records.

(vi) Simplicity: The filing system should be simple and not too elaborate. At the same time, the usefulness of the filing system cannot be sacrificed for the sack of simplicity.

(vii) Easy Location: Documents and records should be kept in such a way that they can be easily located whenever required with the minimum delay possible. At the same time, it does not require heavy expenditure to achieve this purpose.

(viii) Economical: The filing system should be economical in time, space, money and operations. The cost of installation and operation of filling system should be as low as possible. The selected filing equipment should occupy minimum space but can accommodate maximum number of files.


(8i) Accounts Department:
(i) They prepare and present financial statements that provide an overview of the organization’s financial health.
(ii) They develop budgets for various departments and projects, as well as provide financial forecasts to assist in decision-making.

(8ii) Personnel Department:
(i) They source, interview, and hire new employees based on the organization’s needs and requirements.
(ii) They manage and maintain positive relationships between employees and the organization, including handling disputes and promoting a healthy work environment.

(8iii) Production Department:
(i) They plan and oversee the manufacturing process, ensuring efficient production and timely delivery of goods.
(ii) The implement and monitor quality control processes to ensure that products meet the required standards and specifications.

(8iv) Sales Department:
(i) They build and maintain relationships with clients, addressing their needs, and providing excellent customer service.
(ii) They analyze market trends and past sales data to predict future sales, helping the organization make informed business decisions.

(8v) Purchasing Department:
(i) They identify, evaluate, and negotiate with suppliers to secure favorable terms and conditions for the purchase of goods and services.
(ii) They monitor and control the levels of inventory to ensure that the organization has an adequate supply of products while minimizing excess or obsolete


A registry, in a general sense, is a centralized database or repository that stores and manages information or records related to a specific domain or system. It serves as a authoritative source of information, providing a structured and organized way to store, retrieve, and manage data. Registries are commonly used in various fields, including technology, healthcare, and government, to maintain accurate and up-to-date records.

Three merits of a decentralized registry:

(i) Decentralized registries can enhance security by distributing the data across multiple nodes or servers. This makes it more resistant to attacks, as compromising one node does not lead to a complete breach of the system.
(ii) Decentralization increases system resilience. In case of a failure or attack on one part of the network, the system can continue to function as other nodes still maintain the data. This enhances overall system reliability.
(iii) Decentralized registries can provide improved privacy by allowing individuals to have greater control over their own data. Users can grant or revoke access to their information, reducing the risk of unauthorized access.

Two demerits of a decentralized registry:
(i) Implementing and managing a decentralized registry can be more complex compared to a centralized system. The coordination and synchronization of multiple nodes may require more sophisticated technical solutions and ongoing maintenance.
(ii) In a decentralized system, there’s a risk of data inconsistency if not properly managed. Updates or changes made in one part of the network may take time to propagate across all nodes, leading to temporary discrepancies in the data.


Letters generally follow a formal format with a salutation, body, and complimentary close. Letters are often used for external communication, such as with clients, customers, or other organizations. Letters are usually sent individually, addressed to a specific person or entity.
On the other hand, Memos (Memorandums) are more informal and may lack formalities like salutations and closings. They often have a concise structure. Memos are commonly used for internal communication within an organization.

(i) Sender’s Address
(ii) Date
(iii) Inside address
(iv) Salutation
(v) Body of the letter
(vi) Complementary close
(vii) Subject

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