2023 WAEC GCE Literature-In-English (Prose & Obj) Answers

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In Buchi Emecheta’s novel “Second Class Citizen,” the protagonist, Adah, faces numerous challenges in her marriage. Adah is a Nigerian woman who marries Francis, a man she meets in Nigeria before relocating with him to London. From the beginning, their marriage is marked by inequality and cultural clashes. Adah, a strong-willed and ambitious woman, finds herself trapped in a patriarchal society where she is expected to obey and cater to her husband’s needs and desires without questioning her own.

Francis, on the other hand, lacks ambition and fails to support Adah’s dreams of further education and a career. He sees her as nothing more than a wife and mother, limiting her opportunities for personal and professional growth. Adah, despite her intelligence and determination, is constrained by societal norms and Francis’ views on gender roles.

Adah’s responsibility for the failure of her marriage can be seen in her initial decision to marry Francis without fully understanding him or his expectations. Her youth and naivety contribute to this choice, but she also feels a pressure to conform to societal expectations of marriage. However, it is important to note that Adah’s circumstances and limited options play a significant role in her decision-making process.

Throughout the novel, Adah continuously strives to assert her independence, pursuing her education and seeking employment against her husband’s wishes. Her determination to improve her circumstances can be seen as a contributing factor to the deterioration of their relationship. Francis feels threatened and emasculated by Adah’s ambitions, which further strains their marriage.

However, it is essential to recognize that Adah should not be solely blamed for the failure of her marriage. The oppressive societal structures, cultural differences, and Francis’s lack of support all contribute significantly to the disintegration of their relationship. Adah’s desire for a more equal and fulfilling partnership is understandable, as she is constantly fighting against the limitations imposed on her as a woman.

In conclusion, while Adah can be considered partially responsible for the failure of her marriage in “Second Class Citizen,” it is vital to understand the larger context of societal expectations and gender inequality. Adah’s determination to assert her independence and pursue her dreams clashes with the patriarchal norms of her time, creating tensions within her marriage.


In Buchi Emecheta’s novel “Second-Class Citizen,” Pa Ofili plays a significant role as the father and patriarch figure in the life of the protagonist, Adah.

Pa Ofili is portrayed as a traditional Nigerian man who adheres to deeply ingrained patriarchal norms and cultural expectations. As Adah’s father, he epitomizes the male dominance and power prevalent in Nigerian society at that time. His actions and attitudes towards Adah and her mother, Mama, reveal his conservative and discriminatory beliefs.

Throughout the novel, Pa Ofili demonstrates a preference for male children, repeatedly demeaning and undervaluing Adah simply because she is a girl. He consistently neglects her educational needs, refusing to invest in her education despite recognizing her intelligence and potential. Pa Ofili’s actions reflect the prevalent gender inequality and discrimination faced by women during that period.

Furthermore, Pa Ofili represents the societal pressure on women to conform to traditional gender roles. He insists that Adah should focus on domestic responsibilities while discouraging her aspirations for education and independence. His expectation is that Adah should get married and become dependent on a man for her survival, echoing the perception that marriage is a woman’s ultimate goal, rather than personal growth and self-actualization.

Despite his oppressive nature, Pa Ofili inadvertently becomes a source of inspiration for Adah. His treatment motivates her to challenge societal expectations and work towards independence. Adah’s determination to escape from her oppressive environment and pursue her dreams is fueled by her desire to prove herself worthy and defy her father’s low expectations.

In many ways, Pa Ofili’s character represents the wider societal attitudes towards women’s roles and limited opportunities in Nigerian society at that time. His ability to perpetuate these beliefs through his actions highlights the patriarchal system that hinders women’s progress and reinforces gender inequality.

Overall, Pa Ofili plays a crucial role in “Second-Class Citizen” as an embodiment of the patriarchal biases and oppressive nature that Adah and many other women in Nigerian society had to contend with. His character serves as a catalyst for Adah’s personal growth and fuels her determination to overcome societal limitations and achieve independence.


The religious riot in Egba depicted in the novel “Unexpected Joy at Dawn” highlights the volatile nature of religious conflicts and their devastating consequences. The author portrays this riot as a catalyst that disrupts the lives of the characters and exposes the underlying tensions betweendifferent religious groups.

The religious riot in Egba serves as a turning point in the novel, bringing to the forefront the deep-seated animosity between Muslims and Christians in the community. The author skillfully depicts the escalating tension and the subsequent eruption of violence that leaves the once peaceful town in turmoil.

One of the notable aspects of the riot is the way it affects the characters of the novel. It is particularly evident in the experiences of the protagonist, Joy, and her family. Joy and her husband, Dayo, find themselves caught in the crossfire of the religious conflict, their lives turned upside down by the chaos and fear that ensues. They are forced to make difficult decisions and ultimately pay a heavy price for simply being members of a different religious group.

Additionally, the religious riot exposes the underlying prejudices and misunderstandings between the Muslim and Christian communities in Egba. Through the interactions between characters from different religious backgrounds, the author unveils the deep-rooted stereotypes and preconceived notions that fuel the conflict. It becomes clear that religious differences are not only a source of division, but they also perpetuate ignorance and fear.

Moreover, the religious riot gives the author an opportunity to explore the themes of tolerance, forgiveness, and unity. It prompts the characters to question their own beliefs and prejudices, and some undergo a personal transformation as a result. For instance, characters who initially harbored hatred and bias towards members of the opposing faith begin to see the importance of coexistence and understanding.

In a broader sense, the religious riot depicted in the novel serves as a powerful commentary on the universal issue of religious conflicts and their destructive nature. It shines a light on the consequences of intolerance and ignorance, and raises important questions about the role of religion in society. The author does not shy away from showing the devastating impact of the riot, emphasizing the need for dialogue, respect, and empathy in order to prevent such conflicts from occurring.

In conclusion, the religious riot in Egba, as depicted in the novel “Unexpected Joy at Dawn,” showcases the destructive nature of religious conflicts and their far-reaching consequences. It exposes the tensions between different religious groups, challenges preconceived notions, and emphasizes the importance of tolerance and understanding. Through the experiences of the characters, the author underscores the need for peaceful coexistence and the detrimental effects of religious intolerance.


In the novel “Unexpected Joy at Dawn” by Alex Agyei-Agyiri, death is represented as a looming presence that casts a shadow over the lives of the characters. The story takes place in a small African village that is devastated by aseries of unexpected deaths. Each death is met with shock and grief, and the characters must confront their own mortality. Death is portrayed as a natural part of life, but also as something that is unpredictable and can strike at any moment.

The author uses vivid descriptions to capture the emotional impact of death on the characters. For example, when a young boy dies, the author describes the village being enveloped in a heavy silence, with everyone walking around as if in a trance. The presence of death is felt not only in the immediate aftermath of a death, but also in the fear and apprehension that lingers throughout the village.

The novel also explores the different ways in which the characters cope with death. Some turn to their faith and find solace in the belief of an afterlife, while others struggle to make sense of the randomness of death. There are moments of reflection and introspection, as the characters grapple with the inevitability of their own mortality.

In addition to the personal impact, death also has wider implications for the village as a whole. It disrupts the social fabric, creating divisions and tensions among the villagers. The fear of death looms over every interaction, creating a sense of unease and mistrust.

Overall, death is represented as a powerful force that shapes the lives of the characters in “Unexpected Joy at Dawn”. It serves as a reminder of the fragility of life and the importance of cherishing the moments we have.


Joseph, a servant at Wuthering Heights, plays a crucial role in the novel Wuthering Heights by Emily Brontë. He personifies the strict religious beliefs and conservative values of the time, acting as a constant reminder of the oppressive natureof the society in which the characters live. Joseph, with his strong religious convictions and his disdain for anything that goes against his beliefs, serves as a foil to the other characters and their more impulsive, passionate natures.

Joseph is portrayed as a harsh and unforgiving figure, often delivering his judgments and opinions with fervor. He constantly berates and condemns the characters for their supposed sins, especially regarding their relationships and actions. His religious fanaticism and rigidity create a tense and judgmental atmosphere within the novel.

Joseph’s presence adds to the overall gothic atmosphere of the story. His stern demeanor, combined with his enigmatic and cryptic manner of speaking, enhances the sense of mystery and tension that permeates Wuthering Heights. He becomes a symbol of the bleak and gloomy aura that shadows the characters and their lives, reflecting the dark and turbulent nature of their relationships.

Joseph also serves as a link to the past and the old ways of life. As a servant, he represents the traditional and hierarchical structure of society that is prevalent during the time in which the novel is set. His adherence to strict religious principles and his reverence for authority reflect the conservative values of the era, contrasting with the more rebellious and passionate actions of characters like Heathcliff and Catherine.

In this way, Joseph’s role in the novel can be seen as a critique of the oppressive and restrictive nature of the society in which the characters live. Through his character, Brontë highlights the detrimental effects of rigid religious beliefs and social norms on the individual’s freedom and happiness.

Joseph’s presence and portrayal in Wuthering Heights serve to emphasize the themes of religious hypocrisy and societal rigidity. He represents the oppressive forces that the characters must contend with, and his role adds depth and complexity to the novel’s exploration of passion, love, and societal constraints.

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