NECO 2023 Tourism (Objective & Essay) Answers

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Eco-tourism refers to a responsible and sustainable form of tourism that focuses on exploring natural environments, conserving biodiversity, and promoting the well-being of local communities. It involves activities that allow travelers to experience and appreciate natural habitats, wildlife, and cultural heritage while minimizing negative impacts on the environment and supporting local conservation efforts.

(i) Cross River National Park – Cross River State
(ii) Yankari Game Reserve – Bauchi State
(iii) Obudu Mountain Resort – Cross River State
(iv) Chad Basin National Park – Borno State
(v) Awhum Waterfall and Caves – Enugu State

(i) Preservation of Heritage: Cultural tourism development helps preserve and showcase Nigeria’s rich cultural heritage, traditions, art, music, and folklore, contributing to the conservation of cultural identity.

(ii) Economic Growth: Cultural tourism generates revenue for local communities and the government through increased tourism activities, job creation, sale of local crafts, and hospitality services.

(iii) Community Empowerment: Cultural tourism provides opportunities for local communities to participate in tourism-related activities, boosting their socio-economic well-being and reducing poverty.

(iv) Inter-Cultural Understanding: Cultural tourism fosters cross-cultural interactions and understanding between visitors and host communities, promoting tolerance, empathy, and global citizenship.

Sustainable tourism development refers to a responsible and balanced approach to developing and managing tourism that aims to maximize positive economic, social, and environmental impacts while minimizing negative consequences.


(i)Economic Growth and Job Creation: Sustainable tourism development generates economic opportunities by creating jobs in various sectors such as hospitality, transportation, handicrafts, and tour guiding. This contributes to economic growth and helps alleviate unemployment, especially in rural areas

(ii)Cultural Preservation: Sustainable tourism development encourages the preservation of Nigeria’s rich cultural heritage. By promoting traditional festivals, cultural performances, and local craftsmanship, it incentivizes local communities to maintain and celebrate their unique cultural identities.

(iii)Infrastructure Improvement: The growth of sustainable tourism often leads to improvements in local infrastructure, including roads, transportation services, accommodations, and public facilities. This benefits both tourists and local residents and supports overall development.

(iv)Conservation of Natural Resources: Sustainable tourism development emphasizes responsible practices that minimize the impact on natural resources and ecosystems. This helps protect Nigeria’s diverse landscapes, wildlife, and ecosystems for future generations.

(v)Community Empowerment: Sustainable tourism development empowers local communities by involving them in decision-making processes, ensuring their participation in tourism planning, and enabling them to benefit from tourism-related activities.


(i)Infrastructure and Accessibility: Inadequate transportation, poor road networks, and limited connectivity to remote areas hinder the development of tourism. Improving infrastructure is essential to facilitate easy access for tourists.

(ii)Environmental Conservation: Unplanned development and inadequate waste management can lead to environmental degradation and negatively impact natural attractions. Balancing tourism growth with environmental conservation is crucial.

(iii)Lack of Awareness and Education: Many local communities lack awareness of sustainable practices, which can lead to overexploitation of resources and cultural insensitivity. Educating both tourists and local communities is essential for responsible tourism.

(iv)Inconsistent Policies: Inconsistent regulations and policies can create uncertainty for investors and hinder long-term planning for sustainable tourism projects.

(v)Security Concerns: Security challenges, such as political instability and crime, can deter tourists from visiting certain regions, affecting the growth of the tourism industry.

(vi)Lack of Investment: Insufficient funding and limited investment in tourism infrastructure and marketing can impede the development of sustainable tourism projects.

(vii)Cultural Sensitivity: Ensuring that tourism development respects local cultures and traditions is vital. Insensitive tourism practices can lead to cultural commodification and erosion of cultural identities.

(i) Standard Rooms
(ii) Deluxe Rooms
(iii) Executive Rooms
(iv) Suites

Mass Marketing: This strategy targets a large and diverse audience with a standardized marketing message, aiming to reach as many potential customers as possible. Segmentation Marketing: This strategy targets specific segments or groups of customers with tailored marketing messages and offerings based on their needs and preferences.
(ii)Mass Marketing focuses on reaching a wide range of customers, *while* Segmentation Marketing focuses on targeting specific customer segments.
(iii) Mass Marketing uses a general marketing message, *while* Segmentation Marketing uses personalized marketing messages for different segments.

(i) Electronic Billboards:
(i) Wide Reach: Electronic billboards can reach a large audience as they are often located in high-traffic areas.
(ii) Eye-Catching: Electronic billboards use dynamic displays and visuals to capture attention effectively.
(iii) Real-Time Updates: Changes in messages or promotions can be easily made in real-time on electronic billboards.

(i) Cost: Electronic billboards can be expensive to install and maintain.
(ii) Limited Targeting: As billboards are publicly displayed, it is challenging to target a specific audience.
(iii) Environmental Impact: Electronic billboards consume energy, and their bright displays may have negative impacts on the environment and wildlife.

(ii) Fairs and Exhibitions:
(i) Direct Interaction: Fairs and exhibitions allow direct interaction between businesses and potential customers, providing opportunities for product demonstrations and building relationships.
(ii) Targeted Audience: Exhibitions are often themed or industry-specific, attracting a relevant audience interested in the offerings.
(iii) Brand Exposure: Fairs and exhibitions provide an opportunity to increase brand awareness and visibility among a targeted audience.

(i)Cost: Participation in fairs and exhibitions can be costly, including fees, booth design, and promotional materials.
(ii)Competition: Exhibitors face competition from other participants, making it necessary to stand out and differentiate their offerings.
(iii)Limited Time: Fairs and exhibitions are often time-limited events, limiting the interaction time with potential customers.

(i) Increased Customer Satisfaction: Support services contribute to a seamless and pleasant customer experience, enhancing satisfaction levels.
(ii) Improved Operational Efficiency: Support services help in streamlining processes and operations, leading to increased efficiency.
(iii) Competitive Advantage: Effective support services can differentiate a tourism business from its competitors, attracting more customers.
(iv) Enhanced Reputation: Good support services build a positive reputation for the business, leading to increased trust and word-of-mouth recommendations.
(v). Increased Revenue: Satisfied customers and improved operational efficiency can result in higher sales and profitability.
(vi) Customer Loyalty: Support services help in cultivating customer loyalty and repeat business, leading to long-term sustainability.


(i) Job Creation: Cottage industries provide employment opportunities, especially in rural areas, contributing to poverty reduction and economic growth.
(ii) Preserving Cultural Heritage: Cottage industries often involve traditional craftsmanship or production techniques, contributing to the preservation of cultural heritage and traditions.
(iii) Income Generation: Cottage industries can help individuals and communities generate income and become self-sufficient.
(iv) Entrepreneurship Development: Cottage industries encourage entrepreneurship and innovation, promoting self-employment and economic empowerment.
(v) Tourism Enhancement: Cottage industries can provide authentic and unique products that contribute to the overall tourism experience, attracting more tourists.
(vi). Sustainable Development: Cottage industries often utilize local resources and promote sustainable production practices, contributing to environmental conservation and sustainable development.

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