2023 JUPEB Business Studies Questions & Answers

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A multinational company (MNC) is a corporation that operates in multiple countries and conducts business activities in different locations around the world. These companies have subsidiaries, branches, or production facilities in various countries and generally have a centralized management system.

(i) Increased Revenue and Profitability: Multinational companies often bring new opportunities for a host company which leads to increased revenue and profitability for the local economies.
(ii) Access to New Technologies: Multinational companies have access to modern technologies which can benefit the local businesses of the host country.
(iii) More Employment Opportunities: A multinational company’s presence in a country creates job opportunities for people living in the host nation.
(iv) Increased Competition: A multinational company that has established its presence in a country creates a high level of competition with local businesses and thus helps in the growth and development of the local companies.

(i) Reduced Economic Sovereignty: Multinational companies gain a large amount of control over the economy of the host country due to their presence, which reduces the economic sovereignty of the host nation.
(ii) Negative Impact on Local Culture: Multinational companies often impose their own corporate culture on the local businesses of the host nation, which may have a negative effect on local cultures.
(iii) Pollution: Multinational companies also have a responsibility to create sustainable practices but may fail to do so, which results in environmental pollution and other related problems in the host country.
(iv) Reduction in Quality Control: The presence of multinational companies can lead to a reduction in the quality of products produced by local companies as they struggle to keep up with the competition from foreign firms.

An entrepreneur refers to an individual who starts and operates a business venture, taking on financial risks with the aim of making a profit. They are typically innovative, resourceful, and have an entrepreneurial spirit.


Entrepreneurship, on the other hand, is the process of starting a business, which includes recognizing and developing good business opportunities, creating a business plan, and managing resources to ensure the success of the business. It involves taking risks in order to create something new and build value.

(i) Identifying Opportunities: An entrepreneur needs to be able to recognize potential opportunities and identify solutions quickly in order to seize them.
(ii) Assessing Risks: A key part of being an entrepreneur is assessing and managing risk. This requires calculated decision-making and the ability to think outside the box.
(iii) Resource Management: Successful entrepreneurs must be able to efficiently manage their time, finances, labor, and other resources.
(iv) Developing Strategies: Entrepreneurs must develop strategies to stay competitive and succeed. This may include marketing, production, pricing, and distribution strategies.
(v) Building Networks: Networking is critical to an entrepreneur’s success as it helps to establish relationships and expand their reach.
(vi) Problem Solving: Entrepreneurs need to be able to identify problems and come up with innovative solutions.
(vii) Leading Teams: Entrepreneurs need to be able to confidently lead teams and delegate tasks. They must also be able to motivate their team and encourage them to perform at their best.

Cash flow refers to the movement of money in and out of a business within a specific period of time. It represents the inflow and outflow of cash related to the operations, investments, and financing activities of a company. Cash flow is important for businesses to understand and manage, as it serves as an indicator of how well a business is doing financially.

(i) Monitoring Receivables: Keeping track of customer payments and setting payment terms that are realistic and appropriate for customers can help improve cash flow.
(ii) Negotiating Payment Plans: Agreeing to payment plans with suppliers or creditors can help to spread out payments and improve cash flow.
(iii) Raising Prices: Raising prices on products and services can help to generate additional revenue and improve cash flow.
(iv) Take Advantage of Early Payment Discounts: Taking advantage of any available early payment discounts from suppliers or creditors can help to reduce outstanding payments, thus improving cash flow.
(v) Invest Cash Surplus: Placing any extra cash in low-risk investments can provide an additional source of income and help to improve cash flow.
(vi) Increase Efficiency: Streamlining processes, cutting down on waste, or finding ways to increase production efficiency can help to reduce costs and improve cash flow.



Inventory management refers to the process of efficiently overseeing and controlling the flow of goods, materials, and products within a business. It involves monitoring the inventory levels, tracking stock movements, and making sure that the right amount of inventory is available at the right time.

*-Benefits of good inventory management to the firm-*
(i) Reduced costs: Good inventory management helps to reduce expenses by minimizing instances of excess stocks, storing items more efficiently, and reducing the cost of ordering new stocks.
(ii) Improved purchasing decisions: With real-time information about what’s in stock and what will be needed in the future, firm can make better purchasing decisions.
(iii) Increased profits: By controlling stock levels and ensuring ample supply of the right products when needed, firms can maximize profits.
(iv) Minimized shrinkage: Good inventory management can help keep track of items being sold and those missing due to theft or misplacement
(v) Streamlined operations: Having an accurate picture of inventory levels can help managers streamline their operations with better scheduling, workflow, and customer service.
(vi) Accurate forecasting: By closely monitoring inventory levels, firms can be prepared for future demand and plan accordingly.

*-Benefits of good inventory management to customers-*
(i) Increased availability: With good inventory management, customers get access to what they need when they need it.
(ii) Improved customer service: Customers have higher satisfaction if they get the product they want quickly.
(iii) Varied options: Customers get access to a wide variety of products and services.
(iv) More efficient delivery: Good inventory management ensures that orders are delivered on time.
(v) Better quality products: With accurate inventory control, customers can be sure to get the best quality products.
(vi) Fewer backorders: Good inventory management helps reduce the need for customers to wait for backordered items.

Labor-intensive production methods rely heavily on human labor. They require a significant amount of manual work, with a higher proportion of workers involved in the production process. These methods often involve tasks that require physical effort, such as assembly lines, handcrafting, or service-oriented roles. Labor-intensive production is typically associated with industries like agriculture, construction, and certain types of manufacturing where human skills and abilities are essential.

On the other hand, capital-intensive production methods place a greater emphasis on the use of machinery, equipment, and technology. These methods rely less on human labor and involve a larger investment in capital goods. Capital-intensive production often involves automated processes, advanced machinery, and technology-driven systems. It allows for higher levels of productivity, efficiency, and output. Industries that require significant upfront investments in infrastructure, research, and development, such as automotive manufacturing and heavy industries, are typically considered capital-intensive.

It’s worth noting that the choice between labor-intensive and capital-intensive methods of production depends on various factors, including the nature of the industry, available resources, technological advancements, labor costs, and market demands. Both approaches have their advantages and disadvantages, and often a combination of labor and capital is employed to achieve the desired outcomes.

1. Define the Mission: Clearly articulate the purpose and long-term goals of the organization or educational institution. This sets the foundation for the entire strategic planning process.

2. Conduct a Situation Analysis: Evaluate the internal and external environments to understand the current state of affairs. This involves analyzing strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT analysis) to gain insights into the organization’s position.

3. Set Objectives: Establish specific, measurable, achievable, relevant, and time-bound (SMART) objectives. These objectives should align with the organization’s mission and drive progress towards the desired future state.

4. Formulate Strategies: Develop high-level strategies that outline how the organization will achieve its objectives. These strategies should address the identified strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats, and capitalize on the organization’s competitive advantages.

5. Develop Action Plans: Break down the strategies into actionable steps or initiatives. These action plans should assign responsibilities, set timelines, and allocate resources effectively, ensuring that progress can be tracked and monitored.

6. Implement and Monitor: Execute the action plans and closely monitor progress. Regularly review and evaluate the implementation to ensure alignment with the overall strategic direction.

7. Evaluate and Adjust: Assess the effectiveness of the strategies and action plans periodically. Analyze the outcomes and make necessary adjustments or refinements to improve performance and achieve the desired goals.

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