2023 JUPEB Geography Verified Questions & Answers

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(i) Lithosphere: The lithosphere is the rigid outer layer of the Earth, composed of the crust and a portion of the upper mantle. It is divided into several tectonic plates that move slowly over the semi-fluid asthenosphere beneath.

(ii) Continental Crust: The continental crust forms the landmasses and is thicker (typically 20-70 km) than the oceanic crust. It primarily consists of less dense rocks like granite and sedimentary rocks.

(iii) Oceanic Crust: The oceanic crust is thinner (usually 5-10 km) and denser than the continental crust. It primarily consists of basaltic rocks and is found beneath the oceans.

(iv) Mohorovičić Discontinuity (Moho): The Moho is a boundary that separates the crust from the underlying mantle. It marks a significant change in the seismic velocity of rocks.

(v) Asthenoosphere: Although not strictly part of the crust, the asthenosphere is the partially molten, ductile layer of the upper mantle that lies just below the lithosphere. It plays a crucial role in the movement of tectonic plates.

(i) Air for Breathing: The atmosphere contains oxygen, which is vital for the respiration of humans and many other living organisms. Without breathable air, life as we know it would not be possible.

Climate Regulation: The atmosphere plays a crucial role in regulating the Earth’s climate through processes like the greenhouse effect. It traps heat from the Sun, keeping the planet’s temperature within a range suitable for life.

(ii) Weather Patterns: Atmospheric circulation and weather patterns influence precipitation, temperature, and other environmental conditions. Understanding and predicting weather is essential for agriculture, transportation, and disaster preparedness.

(iii) Protection from Harmful Radiation: The ozone layer in the upper atmosphere shields the Earth’s surface from harmful ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the Sun. UV radiation can cause skin cancer and other health issues if not adequately filtered.

(iv) Carbon Dioxide and Photosynthesis: The atmosphere contains carbon dioxide (CO2), which is crucial for photosynthesis in plants. Through this process, plants convert CO2 into oxygen, providing the oxygen needed for life on Earth.

(v) Transmitting and Reflecting Radio Waves: The atmosphere enables radio waves to travel across long distances, facilitating communication through radio and television.

(i) Air Pollution: Industrial processes, vehicle emissions, burning of fossil fuels, and other human activities release pollutants such as sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, particulate matter, and volatile organic compounds. These pollutants can lead to smog, acid rain, and respiratory problems in humans.

(ii) Deforestation: The clearing of forests for agriculture, urbanization, and logging reduces the number of trees that absorb carbon dioxide. This contributes to increased levels of CO2 in the atmosphere, leading to the greenhouse effect and global warming.

(iii) Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Human activities release significant amounts of greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide. These gases trap heat in the atmosphere, leading to global warming and climate change, which can have far-reaching consequences on ecosystems and human societies.

(iv) Ozone Depletion: The release of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and other ozone-depleting substances used in refrigeration, air conditioning, and aerosol propellants damages the ozone layer in the stratosphere. This thinning of the ozone layer allows more harmful UV radiation to reach the Earth’s surface, posing risks to human health and the environment.

(3a) Cultural Landscape refers to the combined natural and cultural features, including structures and human activities, that shape a particular area.

(i) Urbanization and development: Rapid urban growth can lead to the destruction or alteration of cultural landscapes as natural areas are converted into built environments.
(ii) Pollution and environmental degradation: Industrial activities and pollution can degrade the physical elements of cultural landscapes, affecting their aesthetic and ecological value.
(iii) Natural disasters: Events like earthquakes, floods, or wildfires can cause significant damage to cultural landscapes, destroying buildings and disrupting cultural practices.
(iv) War and conflict: Armed conflicts can result in the intentional destruction of cultural heritage sites and landscapes as a tactic of warfare.
(v). Neglect and lack of preservation efforts: Without proper management and preservation efforts, cultural landscapes can deteriorate over time due to neglect, lack of maintenance, or insufficient resources.

(i). Historical significance: Cultural landscapes often hold historical importance, representing the past human activities and events that have shaped the area.
(ii) Symbolic value: They may have symbolic meanings for a community or society, representing their identity, values, or beliefs.
(iii). Social and cultural practices: Cultural landscapes are often associated with specific social and cultural practices that have been passed down through generations.

(i). Architecture (e.g., buildings, monuments): Structures constructed by humans that reflect their cultural values and architectural styles.
(ii). Tools and artifacts (e.g., pottery, clothing): Objects created by humans for various purposes, showcasing their technological advancements and artistic expressions.
(iii) Food and cuisine: Culinary traditions, recipes, and food-related objects that represent a culture’s culinary heritage.

(i). Language and communication systems: The ways people communicate through spoken or written language, including dialects, accents, and writing systems.
(ii)Beliefs, values, and customs (e.g., religion): Abstract concepts, moral codes, and rituals that shape people’s worldview and guide their behavior.
(iii) Social norms and traditions: The unwritten rules, expectations, and practices that govern social interactions within a community or society.

(i) Navigation: Maps help people find locations, plan routes, and navigate from one place to another.

(ii) Spatial Representation: Maps provide a visual representation of geographical features, landmarks, and boundaries.

(iii) Reference: Maps serve as a reference tool for identifying the relative positions of places and their relationships.

(iv) Communication: Maps are used to convey information about geographical data, such as population distribution, weather patterns, or terrain.

(v) Analysis: Maps are utilized in various fields, like urban planning, environmental studies, and business analysis, to analyze patterns and make informed decisions.

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