Neco food and nutrition objective and essays correct answers

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Food additives are substances that are added to food during processing or preparation to enhance its taste appearance texture or preservation.

(i) Preservatives
(ii) Sweeteners
(iii) Flavor enhancers
(iv) Colorings
(v) Emulsifiers
(vi) Antioxidants

(i) Beef comes from cattle or cows while poultry are meats from domesticated birds.
(ii) Beef has a rich savory flavor whereas poultry has a lighter and milder taste.
(iii) Beef is generally more firm and chewy while poultry is more tender and can easily be shredded or broken apart.
(iv) Beef is higher in fat content while poultry is generally leaner and lower in fat.
(v) Beef is commonly grilled roasted or braised to enhance its flavor and tenderness while poultry is frequently baked roasted sautéed or fried.

(i) Wash your hands thoroughly before handling food or any kitchen utensils.
(ii) Clean and sanitize all kitchen surfaces including countertops cutting boards and utensils after each use.
(iii) Ensure that raw meats and other perishable food items are stored properly in the refrigerator or freezer.
(iv) Always cook food thoroughly to kill any harmful bacteria.
(v) Avoid touching your face hair or any other part of your body while preparing food.
(vi) Use separate cutting boards knives and other utensils for raw meats and other types of food to prevent cross-contamination.

(i) Bile plays a crucial role in the digestion and absorption of fats. It helps in breaking down large fat molecules into smaller ones which are easier for enzymes to digest.
(ii) Bile also aids in the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins such as vitamins A D E and K.
(iii) It helps in the emulsification of fats which means it allows fat molecules to mix with water-based digestive enzymes increasing their efficiency.
(iv) Bile is also responsible for the elimination of waste products such as bilirubin from the body.

(i) Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas and is essential for regulating blood glucose levels.
(ii) Its primary role is to facilitate the uptake of glucose from the bloodstream into cells where it can be used for energy production.
(iii) Insulin helps in the storage of excess glucose in the form of glycogen in the liver and muscles to be used later when blood glucose levels decrease.
(iv) It also promotes the conversion of glucose into lipid molecules for long-term storage in adipose tissue.

(i) Cooking Process: Both steaming and boiling involve the use of moisture to cook food.
(ii) Retention of Nutrients: Both methods help to retain the natural flavors colors and nutrients of the food being cooked.
(iii) Versatility: Both steaming and boiling can be used to cook a wide variety of foods including vegetables grains seafood and meats.
(iv) Simplicity: Both methods are relatively simple and require minimal equipment.
(v) Health Benefits: Both steaming and boiling are considered healthier cooking methods compared to frying or grilling because they do not require additional fats or oils.
(vi) Moisture Preservation: Both methods help to maintain the moisture content of the food preventing it from drying out during the cooking process.

A hostess refers to a woman who is responsible for receiving and entertaining guests at social gatherings events or parties. The role of a hostess involves ensuring the comfort and enjoyment of guests managing the logistics of the event and creating a pleasant atmosphere for everyone in attendance.

Entertainment refers to any form of activity, performance, or presentation that is designed to amuse, entertain, or provide enjoyment to an audience. It can include various forms such as movies, music, theater, sports, games, books, art, and recreational activities.

Food budgeting refers to the process of planning and managing expenses related to food consumption within a specified budget. It involves allocating a certain amount of money for purchasing food items and making decisions on how to spend that budget wisely.

Pasteurization is a process that involves heating a liquid, typically food or beverages, to a specific temperature and then rapidly cooling it to destroy or inhibit the growth of harmful microorganisms, such as bacteria, viruses, and parasites. It helps reduce the risk of foodborne illnesses by making the food or beverage safer for consumption while preserving its quality and nutritional value.

(i) Under nutrition refers to a lack of adequate nutrients and calories in the diet leading to malnourishment and deficiencies in the body. Over nutrition on the other hand refers to excessive consumption of nutrients and calories often leading to obesity and related health issues.

(ii) Under nutrition is commonly associated with poverty limited access to nutritious food and inadequate intake of essential nutrients like proteins vitamins and minerals While Over nutrition on the other hand is commonly associated with excessive consumption of processed and high-calorie foods sedentary lifestyles and overeating.

Consumer education is the process of teaching people how to buy goods and services wisely and safely. It is the process by which consumers become better informed and knowledgeable about the products and services they purchase.

(i)Empowerment of consumers: Consumer education empowers consumers by providing them with the knowledge and skills to make informed purchase decisions. Through consumer education, consumers learn about their rights and responsibilities as buyers and sellers, ensuring they are confident when making purchases.

(ii)Protection of consumers: Education on consumer safety and governance is very important, it helps to protect consumers from fraud, scams, and unfair business practices. Consumer education helps consumers identify scams and frauds, prevents them from being victims of unfair business practices, and alerting them to the need to take action when necessary.

(iii)Development of a fair marketplace: Consumer education also helps to promote competition among businesses, encouraging them to improve the quality of their products and services and to be more responsive and communicative with their consumers. It creates a level playing field for businesses and consumers, reducing the cases of market abuse and unfair business practices.

(iv)Promotion of consumer responsibility: Consumer education does not only protect consumer rights, but also promotes consumer responsibility. It encourages consumers to take responsibility for their actions and to make responsible purchasing decisions. It educates consumers on the importance of using products and services in a responsible way, promoting a sustainable and environmentally friendly lifestyle.

(iii)Baking powder
(v)Milk (or water)
(vii)Butter (or oil)
(Viii)Vanilla extract (for flavoring)


M – Pericarp
N – Episperm
O – Granule
P – Aleurone layer
Q – Seedling

The major nutrient stored in the part labelled Q is starch

(i) Palm oil – Saturated fatty acids
(ii) Soybean oil – Unsaturated fatty acids
(iii) Coconut oil – Saturated fatty acids
(iv) Olive oil – Unsaturated fatty acids

(i) Proteins act as biological catalysts accelerating chemical reactions in the body.
(ii) Proteins provide structural support to cells and tissues.
(iii) Proteins act as carriers helping to transport various molecules and ions across cell membranes.
(iv) Proteins function as hormones which are chemical messengers that regulate various physiological processes.
(v) Proteins help to identify and neutralize harmful invaders protecting the body from infections.
(vi) Proteins such as actin and myosin interact with each other to generate the force required for muscle movement.

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