2023 NABTEB Literature in English Objective & Prose Legit Expo – June/july

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(Answer ONE Questions From Ecah Part)


In Buchi Emecheta’s novel “Second-Class Citizen,” symbols play a significant role in advancing the plot and conveying deeper meanings. Here are a few examples of the use of symbols and their impact on the narrative:

(i) Passport: The passport symbolizes Adah’s desire for freedom and independence. As a Nigerian woman living in London, Adah’s passport represents her hope of escaping the limitations and constraints imposed on her as a second-class citizen. Throughout the novel, her efforts to obtain and renew her passport become a recurring motif, reflecting her quest for personal agency and a better life.

(ii) Education: Education serves as a symbol of empowerment and upward mobility for Adah. It represents her determination to overcome the obstacles and prejudices she faces. Adah’s pursuit of education, despite numerous setbacks, demonstrates her resilience and her refusal to accept her second-class status. The symbol of education becomes a driving force behind Adah’s transformation and her eventual success as a writer.

(iii) Language: Language is used as a symbol to highlight the cultural and social barriers faced by Adah. As a Nigerian immigrant in the UK, Adah grapples with language differences and the challenges of communication. Her struggle to master English and adapt to the cultural norms of her new environment reflects her marginalized position and the difficulties she faces as a second-class citizen.

(iv) The Wall: The wall in Adah’s childhood home symbolizes confinement and limitation. It represents the restrictions placed upon Adah by her family and society. Adah dreams of breaking down this wall and escaping its confines, signifying her longing for freedom and a better life. The symbol of the wall evolves throughout the novel, paralleling Adah’s journey towards liberation and self-realization.


Aaron Tsuru, Adah’s husband, is introduced as a Nigerian man living in London. Initially, Adah sees him as a potential partner who can help her escape her oppressive family and the limitations of her societal status. However, as the story unfolds, it becomes evident that Aaron is an unreliable and abusive husband.

The circumstances surrounding Aaron’s death are tragic and sudden. While Adah is pregnant with their second child, she receives a distressing phone call informing her that Aaron has been involved in a fatal car accident. Adah rushes to the hospital, filled with fear and uncertainty about his condition.

When Adah arrives at the hospital, she discovers that Aaron has succumbed to his injuries and passed away. This revelation shatters Adah emotionally, leaving her devastated and vulnerable. She is faced with the daunting task of coping with her husband’s death while also caring for their children and navigating life as a single mother.

Aaron’s death serves as a turning point in the novel, marking a significant shift in Adah’s life. It forces her to confront the harsh realities of her situation and the challenges she must overcome as a widow and immigrant in a foreign country. Adah is left to grapple with her grief while also fighting for her own independence and striving to create a better future for herself and her children.

Through Aaron’s death, Emecheta explores themes of loss, resilience, and the strength of the human spirit. It serves as a catalyst for Adah’s personal growth and transformation, motivating her to pursue her dreams and assert her own identity in the face of adversity.

Overall, Aaron Tsuru’s death in “Second-Class Citizen” is a significant event in the novel, shaping the trajectory of the protagonist’s life and highlighting the challenges faced by African women in patriarchal societies.


The use of irony in “Unexpected Joy at Dawn” adds depth and complexity to the narrative. It underscores the struggles faced by the characters and invites readers to question societal norms, cultural clashes, and the complexities of human nature. By employing irony, Agyiri effectively engages readers and prompts them to reflect on the themes and messages conveyed throughout the novel. The use of irony contributes to the overall narrative in the following ways:
The title of the novel, “Unexpected Joy at Dawn,” introduces an ironic element from the beginning. While “joy” suggests happiness and contentment, the inclusion of “unexpected” implies that this joy might not be what it seems. This irony sets the tone for the novel, hinting at the underlying tension and challenges that the characters will face.
The setting of the novel, a small village in Ghana during the post-independence era, presents an ironic contrast. On the surface, the village appears idyllic and serene, but beneath this fa├žade lie issues and conflicts that the characters grapple with. Despite the seemingly peaceful setting, the characters face struggles related to identity, cultural clashes, and personal challenges.
Irony is also present in the names of some of the characters. For instance, the protagonist, Kobina Forster, has the last name “Forster,” which sounds similar to “forester,” suggesting a connection to nature and the land. However, Kobina Forster’s journey involves moving away from his ancestral home and struggling to find his place in a changing world, implying a sense of displacement and disconnection.
The clash between traditional African values and the influence of Western culture is a central theme in the novel. This clash is ironic, as the characters strive to adopt Western ideals but often find themselves caught in hypocrisy and contradiction. The pursuit of modernity and progress is juxtaposed with the erosion of traditional values and the loss of cultural identity.
The resolution of the novel introduces a final twist of irony without specific details. It challenges readers’ expectations and subverts traditional narrative arcs, prompting a reevaluation of assumptions and interpretations of the events. This adds layers of complexity and irony to the overall plot.


In Alex Agyei-Agyiri’s novel “Unexpected Joy at Dawn,” the theme of societal decadence is explored, shedding light on the deterioration and moral decline of the community in which the story takes place. The novel delves into the consequences of cultural shifts, external influences, and the erosion of traditional values.

The clash between traditional African values and the encroaching influence of Western culture is a central aspect of the theme of societal decadence. As Western ideals permeate the village, traditional customs and beliefs begin to lose their significance. This clash leads to a sense of cultural confusion and moral ambiguity, contributing to the decay of the community’s moral fabric.

Hypocrisy and corruption are prevalent in the narrative, highlighting the moral decline within the community. Characters who outwardly display adherence to societal norms and moral codes often engage in immoral or unethical behavior in their private lives. This hypocrisy underscores the decay of moral values and the disillusionment experienced by individuals within the community.

The breakdown of community cohesion is another element of societal decadence depicted in the novel. The once tight-knit community becomes fragmented as individuals prioritize self-interest over collective well-being. This loss of unity and shared values contributes to a sense of isolation and disintegration within the community.

The disintegration of traditional family structures further reinforces the theme of societal decadence. The novel portrays broken marriages, infidelity, and strained relationships between parents and children. These disruptions in the family unit reflect the moral decline and decay within the broader societal context.

Agyiri also explores the loss of cultural identity resulting from the erosion of traditional values and the embrace of external influences. As the community becomes influenced by Western ideals, characters grapple with feelings of displacement and a sense of being adrift in a changing world. The loss of cultural identity adds to the overall theme of societal decadence.

Through the theme of societal decadence, “Unexpected Joy at Dawn” offers a critical commentary on the impact of cultural shifts and external influences on a community’s moral fabric. The novel examines the consequences of abandoning traditional values and the challenges faced when trying to reconcile conflicting cultural forces. By portraying the decay of societal values, Agyiri prompts readers to reflect on the importance of cultural preservation, community cohesion, and maintaining moral integrity in the face of changing times.



The conflict between Heathcliff and Edgar Linton is a central driving force in the narrative, exploring themes of love, revenge, and social class. Heathcliff, a brooding and mysterious outsider, and Edgar, a refined and socially respectable gentleman, clash over their affections for Catherine Earnshaw.

Heathcliff’s love for Catherine is passionate and intense, born out of their shared upbringing at Wuthering Heights. He resents Edgar as a rival for Catherine’s affections and sees him as a representation of societal norms and privileges that keep him apart from her. Heathcliff’s jealousy and desire for revenge fuel his determination to undermine their relationship.

Edgar, in contrast, represents stability, social acceptance, and conventional values. Catherine is drawn to his refinement and the security he offers. Edgar perceives Heathcliff as a threat due to his wild nature and troubled past, viewing him as an unsuitable match for Catherine.

The conflict between Heathcliff and Edgar symbolizes a clash of personalities, values, and social backgrounds. It embodies the tension between passion and propriety, wildness and civility. Their rivalry encapsulates the destructive power of love and the consequences of societal expectations.

As the conflict escalates, the consequences reverberate throughout the novel, affecting not only the lives of these characters but also future generations. The conflict drives a series of vengeful acts and tragic events, highlighting the destructive nature of unresolved conflicts and the lasting impact they can have on individuals and their relationships.

Ultimately, the conflict between Heathcliff and Edgar serves as a vehicle for exploring complex themes such as the destructive power of love, the influence of societal norms, and the consequences of revenge. Bronte’s portrayal of their conflict engages readers with its exploration of human emotions and the inherent conflicts that arise from differing desires and societal expectations. It underscores the profound impact of these conflicts on individuals and the tragic outcomes that can result from unresolved rivalries.


In Emily Bronte’s novel “Wuthering Heights,” the relationship between power and class is a prominent theme that influences the dynamics among the characters. The novel explores how social class shapes power dynamics and the pursuit of power.

Class divisions create distinct power structures throughout the story. Wuthering Heights, representing the working class, is portrayed as rugged and isolated, while Thrushcross Grange symbolizes the upper class with refinement and civility. The Lintons of Thrushcross Grange possess social and economic advantages, granting them power and influence.

Heathcliff, an outsider from a lower class background, experiences the impact of class-based power dynamics. His lack of social standing renders him vulnerable and subjected to mistreatment. Heathcliff’s relentless pursuit of wealth and revenge illustrates his desire to gain power and assert himself within the rigid class system.

Individuals from different classes seek power and strive for higher social status. Catherine Earnshaw’s choice to marry Edgar Linton instead of Heathcliff demonstrates the influence of class on personal relationships. The characters’ pursuit of power leads to a cycle of vengeance, manipulation, and tragedy, perpetuating violence and suffering.

The novel exposes the injustices and inequalities inherent in a class-based society through the relationship between power and class. It critiques the power structures underpinning societal norms and explores the destructive consequences of power struggles fueled by class divisions.

Bronte emphasizes how power dynamics influenced by social class shape individuals’ lives and interactions. The novel highlights the detrimental effects of power imbalances on relationships and the complexities of human behavior within a class-based society.

The relationship between power and class in “Wuthering Heights” illuminates how social hierarchy influences the characters’ lives. It reveals the inequalities and injustices embedded in a class-based society, depicting the destructive consequences of power struggles and underscoring the intricate interplay between power, class, and human relationships.


The experiences of the unnamed narrator within the brotherhood organization are both transformative and disillusioning. Initially drawn to the brotherhood as a means to fight against racial inequality, the narrator sees it as an opportunity to contribute to societal change and find purpose. However, his experiences within the brotherhood reveal deeper layers of manipulation and control.

As a spokesperson for the organization, the narrator is given a new identity and a platform to express his ideas and aspirations. He becomes a prominent figure, delivering speeches and organizing rallies, which grants him a semblance of power and influence. Yet, he soon realizes that the brotherhood is more focused on its own political agenda than genuine racial equality.

The narrator’s disillusionment grows as he becomes aware of internal power struggles and political machinations within the brotherhood. He questions the authenticity of his actions and the manipulation of his voice, feeling invisible and marginalized. He begins to realize that he is reduced to a mere symbol for the organization’s cause, rather than an individual with agency and autonomy.

The breaking point occurs when the narrator witnesses the brotherhood’s violent suppression of a Harlem riot. He realizes that the organization is more interested in maintaining its own power and control than in uplifting the community. This revelation prompts him to break free from the brotherhood’s grip and reclaim his own identity.

The experiences of the narrator in the brotherhood expose the complexities of power dynamics and the dangers of sacrificing one’s individuality for the sake of a larger cause. Ellison explores themes of identity, disillusionment, and the pitfalls of collective movements. The narrator’s journey serves as a metaphor for the broader struggles of African Americans seeking social and political justice, emphasizing the importance of maintaining one’s individuality and autonomy within larger societal movements.

Ultimately, the narrator’s experiences in the brotherhood underscore the need for critical examination of the organizations and movements one aligns with, to guard against manipulation and loss of personal identity. Ellison’s portrayal of the brotherhood prompts reflection on the complexities of power and the delicate balance between collective action and maintaining one’s own voice and agency.


The portrayal of women in “Invisible Man” is multi-dimensional and intricate, reflecting the complexities of their roles and experiences within the narrative and broader societal context. Ellison presents a diverse range of female characters who contribute to the protagonist’s journey and shed light on various aspects of his development and the social dynamics at play.

The portrayal of women in “Invisible Man” encompasses both societal stereotypes and the subversion of those expectations. Characters like Mary Rambo embody the nurturing and maternal figure, providing support and guidance to the narrator. However, Ellison also challenges these stereotypes by depicting women who exhibit agency and assert their independence. Characters like Sybil and the female factory workers actively challenge traditional gender roles and participate in political and social movements.

Ellison’s portrayal of women in the novel avoids simplistic categorizations, presenting them as complex individuals with their own desires, struggles, and contradictions. Characters like the narrator’s mother and Sybil are flawed and multi-dimensional, defying simple depictions of women. This complexity adds depth and authenticity to the female characters, allowing readers to understand the diversity of female experiences and perspectives.

Women in “Invisible Man” also serve as symbols or representations of larger themes or ideas. The character of Trueblood’s daughter symbolizes the destructive effects of societal prejudices and sexual exploitation, while Brother Jack’s mistress represents the compromises and deceptions within the brotherhood. Through these symbolic representations, Ellison explores broader social issues and critiques the oppressive structures that affect women.

Ellison acknowledges the intersectionality of identity by exploring the experiences of African American women within the context of racial and gender discrimination. Characters like the narrator’s mother and Sybil face unique challenges and struggles that arise from their intersecting identities, highlighting the specific burdens they bear within a racist and patriarchal society.

Ellison’s portrayal of women in “Invisible Man” is nuanced and multi-faceted. It challenges societal expectations and stereotypes while presenting women as complex individuals with agency, desires, and contradictions. Through their experiences, the novel explores the complexities of gender dynamics, societal expectations, and the intersections of race and gender. Ellison’s portrayal humanizes women and invites readers to consider the diversity and resilience of female experiences within a complex and oppressive social landscape.

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