2023 NABTEB Government Objective & Essay Expo, Legit Answers – June/july

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(i) Capitalism: Capitalism is an economic and social system characterized by private ownership of the means of production, such as factories, businesses, and resources. In a capitalist system, individuals and companies operate for profit, and the allocation of resources is determined by market forces of supply and demand. The central principle of capitalism is the pursuit of individual self-interest, with the belief that it leads to economic growth and prosperity. It encourages competition, free markets, and the accumulation of wealth.

(ii) Socialism: Socialism is an economic and political system that aims to create a more equitable society by advocating for collective ownership and control of the means of production. In a socialist system, the government or the community as a whole may own and manage key industries, such as healthcare, education, and transportation. The goal is to ensure a fair distribution of wealth and resources, with an emphasis on meeting the needs of all members of society. Socialism can take various forms, ranging from democratic socialism, where there is still respect for democratic principles, to more authoritarian forms.

(iii) Communism: Communism is a socio-economic ideology that advocates for the establishment of a classless, stateless society where all property is collectively owned and each person contributes according to their abilities and receives according to their needs. In a communist system, the means of production are commonly owned, and the central principle is the abolition of private property. Communist ideology envisions a society where social, political, and economic power is shared equally among all members, and where the state eventually becomes unnecessary and withers away.

(iv) Feudalism: Feudalism was a social and economic system that prevailed in medieval Europe from the 9th to the 15th century. It was characterized by a hierarchical structure in which land was granted by a lord to a vassal in exchange for loyalty, military service, and other obligations. The vassals, in turn, granted portions of their land to sub-vassals or serfs, who were obligated to provide labor, goods, or services to the land-owning class. Feudalism was based on personal relationships and the exchange of obligations, with power and wealth concentrated in the hands of the nobility.

(v) Totalitarianism: Totalitarianism is a political system where a centralized government exercises complete control over all aspects of public and private life. It seeks to regulate and control all aspects of society, including politics, the economy, culture, and personal beliefs. Totalitarian regimes often suppress dissent, restrict individual freedoms, and use propaganda and state-controlled media to shape public opinion. Examples of totalitarian regimes include Nazi Germany under Adolf Hitler, the Soviet Union under Joseph Stalin, and North Korea under the Kim dynasty.


Federalism is a system of government in which power is divided and shared between a central authority (the federal government) and multiple regional or state governments. Each level of government has its own set of powers and responsibilities, and they coexist within the same political framework. This division of power allows for a more decentralized approach to governance, where both the central and regional governments have distinct areas of authority.

(i) Diverse and large populations: Federalism is often adopted in countries with significant cultural, linguistic, or ethnic diversity, as it allows different regions to have some level of autonomy in managing their local affairs. This helps accommodate the diverse needs and preferences of various communities within the nation.

(ii) Preventing concentration of power: Federal systems are designed to distribute power among different levels of government, preventing excessive concentration of authority in a single entity. By doing so, it reduces the risk of authoritarianism and ensures a system of checks and balances.

(iii) Addressing regional disparities: In nations with substantial economic, social, and developmental disparities between regions, federalism can help address these imbalances. Regional governments can formulate policies tailored to their specific needs and work towards improving their local conditions.

(iv) Enhancing participation and representation: Federalism provides citizens with more opportunities to participate in decision-making processes. Local governments are closer to the people, making it easier for citizens to engage in politics and have a say in their community’s development.

(v) Managing large territories: Countries with vast geographical areas and diverse landscapes may adopt federalism to ensure effective governance throughout the nation. Centralized control might be impractical in such cases, and regional governments can handle local matters more efficiently.


The relationship between separation of powers and checks and balances is that they are both principles designed to prevent the concentration of power in a single entity and ensure a system of checks and balances among different branches or institutions of government.

Separation of powers refers to the division of government into separate branches or institutions, each with its own distinct powers and responsibilities. Typically, these branches are the legislative, executive, and judicial branches. The goal of separation of powers is to prevent the abuse of power and promote accountability by distributing power among different entities.

Checks and balances, on the other hand, are mechanisms that allow each branch of government to limit the powers of the other branches and prevent any one branch from becoming too dominant. This system enables each branch to exercise oversight and control over the actions of the other branches. These checks and balances help maintain a balance of power and ensure that no single branch becomes too powerful.

(i) (i) Presidential system of government: In a presidential system, the separation of powers is exercised by dividing the government into three separate branches: the executive, legislative, and judicial. The president, who is elected by the people, serves as the head of state and government. The executive branch, headed by the president, is responsible for executing and enforcing laws. The legislative branch consists of a separate body, such as a Congress or Parliament, which is responsible for making laws. The judicial branch is an independent system of courts that interprets and applies the laws.

The separation of powers is exercised in a presidential system through the independence of each branch. The president is elected separately from the legislature and is not accountable to it. The president has the power to veto legislation passed by the legislature, which serves as a check on the legislative branch. The judiciary, as an independent branch, has the authority to interpret the laws and review the constitutionality of executive actions or legislation passed by the legislature. This separation of powers allows each branch to act as a check on the other, preventing the concentration of power.

(ii) Parliamentary system of government: In a parliamentary system, the separation of powers is exercised by dividing the government divided into three branches: the executive, legislative, and judicial. However, the executive and legislative branches are more closely intertwined. The executive branch is formed by the majority party or coalition in the legislative branch. The head of the executive branch, typically the prime minister, is a member of the legislative branch and is accountable to it. The executive branch is responsible for proposing and implementing laws, while the legislative branch is responsible for making and passing laws.

The separation of powers in a parliamentary system is achieved through the checks and balances within the legislative branch itself. The legislature holds the executive branch accountable through various mechanisms, such as question times, debates, and votes of no confidence. Additionally, the judiciary maintains its independence and has the authority to interpret and apply the laws, serving as a check on both the executive and legislative branches.


A political party is an organized group of individuals who share similar political ideologies, principles, and goals. It serves as a vehicle for citizens to participate in the political process, exercise their rights, and influence government policies and decisions.

(i) Ideological Parties: These parties are based on a specific set of political ideologies and principles. They have a comprehensive vision of society and advocate for fundamental changes in the political, economic, or social systems. Examples include socialist parties, libertarian parties, and green parties.

(ii) Centrist Parties: Centrist parties aim to occupy the political center ground, positioning themselves as moderate and pragmatic alternatives. They often seek to build broad-based coalitions by appealing to a wide range of voters and emphasizing compromise and consensus-building.

(iii) Single-Issue Parties: These parties focus on a particular issue or a narrow range of issues. They mobilize support around a specific cause, such as environmental protection, animal rights, or pro-life/pro-choice positions. Single-issue parties may emerge when there is a significant public concern that is not adequately addressed by the existing parties.

(iv) Nationalist Parties: Nationalist parties prioritize the interests, values, and sovereignty of their respective nations. They often emphasize cultural identity, protection of national borders, and assertive foreign policies. Nationalist parties may advocate for economic protectionism and resist supranational integration.

(v) Regional or Ethnoreligious Parties: These parties represent the interests of specific regions or ethnic, linguistic, or religious communities within a country. They advocate for regional autonomy, self-determination, or the protection of cultural and linguistic rights. Examples include regional parties in India, ethnocentric parties in the Balkans, and religious parties in the Middle East.

(i) Representation
(ii) Government formation
(iii) Policy formations
(iv) Mobilization and participation
(v) Candidates Nomination

Public opinion refers to the collective beliefs, attitudes, and views of the general public on various issues, policies, events, or individuals. It represents the opinions and sentiments held by a significant portion of the population and can influence decision-making processes in areas such as politics, governance, and public policy.

Public opinion is a complex and dynamic concept that can be shaped by a variety of factors, including personal experiences, socialization, media exposure, political ideologies, and interpersonal communication. It can be influenced by both rational considerations and emotional responses, and it can vary across different demographic groups and regions.

(i) Surveys and Opinion Polls
(ii) Focus Groups
(iii) Social Media Monitoring
(iv) Town Hall Meetings and Public Forums
(v) Media Analysis

(i) Surveys and Opinion Polls: Surveys and opinion polls are among the most common methods used to ascertain public opinion. These polls involve collecting data from a representative sample of the population through questionnaires or interviews. The questions may pertain to specific government policies, performance, or leadership. The results are then analyzed to provide an overview of public sentiment towards the government.

(ii) Focus Groups: Focus groups are small gatherings of individuals who participate in guided discussions about a particular topic, in this case, the government’s performance. These groups allow researchers to gain in-depth insights into the participants’ attitudes, beliefs, and perceptions. Focus groups are especially useful for understanding the underlying reasons behind public opinions.

(iii) Social Media Monitoring: In the digital age, social media platforms have become significant sources of public opinion. Governments and researchers can monitor public discussions, comments, and sentiments shared on platforms like Twitter, Facebook, and Reddit. Sentiment analysis tools can be employed to gauge the overall tone of these online conversations.

(iv) Town Hall Meetings and Public Forums: Organizing town hall meetings and public forums provides an opportunity for citizens to directly engage with government representatives. These events allow people to voice their opinions, concerns, and suggestions, which can offer valuable insights into the public’s views on the government’s performance.

(v) Media Analysis: The media plays a crucial role in shaping public opinion. Analyzing news articles, editorials, and commentaries can provide an understanding of the media’s portrayal of the government and how it influences public perception. Media analysis can help identify patterns and biases that may affect public opinion formation.



From the perspective of the colonized people of Africa, nationalism played a significant role in their struggle for independence and the reclaiming of their cultural, political, and economic autonomy. Nationalism in Africa emerged as a response to the oppressive and exploitative nature of colonialism, which had subjected African nations and their peoples to a range of injustices and inequalities.

Colonialism in Africa involved the imposition of foreign rule, the extraction of resources, forced labor, cultural assimilation, and the subjugation of local populations. This resulted in the erosion of traditional institutions, the disruption of social structures, and the exploitation of African labor and resources for the benefit of colonial powers. The experiences of colonization fostered a sense of shared identity and a desire for self-determination among Africans.

Nationalism, in this context, became a powerful force for mobilizing resistance and organizing movements aimed at ending colonial rule. African nationalists sought to reclaim their dignity, assert their cultural heritage, and secure political and economic independence. They emphasized the unity and common interests of African peoples, transcending tribal and ethnic divisions to forge a pan-African identity. Prominent leaders like Kwame Nkrumah in Ghana, Jomo Kenyatta in Kenya, Julius Nyerere in Tanzania, and Ahmed Sékou Touré in Guinea emerged as champions of African nationalism, advocating for liberation and self-governance.

African nationalism was rooted in the idea of reclaiming Africa’s past, embracing its rich cultural heritage, and reestablishing African agency in determining its own destiny. It sought to dismantle the colonial framework that had imposed artificial borders, divided ethnic groups, and suppressed African languages and customs. Nationalist movements aimed to revive indigenous traditions, languages, and institutions as essential components of African identity and nation-building.

The struggle for independence often involved both peaceful and armed resistance, with African nationalists organizing protests, strikes, and boycotts against colonial authorities. They demanded political representation, equal rights, and access to education and economic opportunities. Nationalist movements also focused on building a sense of unity and solidarity among Africans, fostering a collective consciousness that transcended colonial divisions.

Once independence was achieved, nationalism continued to shape post-colonial Africa. It influenced nation-building efforts, the drafting of constitutions, and the establishment of political systems. Nationalism often served as a unifying force in the face of diverse ethnic, linguistic, and religious groups, providing a framework for building inclusive and cohesive societies. However, it also faced challenges, such as managing ethnic tensions, regional disparities, and balancing national aspirations with the realities of governance.

In conclusion, nationalism from the perspective of colonized people in Africa was a powerful force that mobilized resistance against colonial oppression, asserted African identity and agency, and led to the achievement of independence. It sought to reclaim African cultures, languages, and traditions, and build inclusive and cohesive societies. While nationalism played a pivotal role in liberating Africa from colonial rule, its impact and challenges continue to shape the continent’s socio-political landscape.

(i) Colonial exploitation and oppression: Nigeria, like other African countries, experienced the detrimental effects of colonial rule, including economic exploitation and political marginalization. The exploitation of Nigeria’s natural resources and the denial of political representation created a sense of frustration and fueled the desire for self-determination.

(ii) Cultural and ethnic diversity: Nigeria is home to diverse ethnic groups with distinct languages, cultures, and traditions. The colonial boundaries often ignored these divisions and imposed artificial borders, leading to tensions and conflicts. Nationalism in Nigeria emerged as a response to preserve and protect the cultural and ethnic identities of different groups within the country.

(iii) Influence of pan-Africanism: The ideas of pan-Africanism, which emphasized African unity and solidarity, had a significant impact on the growth of Nigerian nationalism. Figures like Nnamdi Azikiwe and Obafemi Awolowo advocated for the independence and self-governance of Nigeria, while also promoting the broader African liberation movement.

(iv) Rise of educated elites: The growth of nationalism in Nigeria was also driven by a rising class of educated elites who received Western education during the colonial era. These intellectuals played a crucial role in mobilizing the masses, spreading nationalist ideas, and organizing political movements.

(v) Formation of political parties and organizations: Political parties and organizations, such as the National Council of Nigeria and the Cameroons (NCNC), the Action Group (AG), and later the Nigerian National Democratic Party (NNDP), were instrumental in mobilizing support for nationalist causes. These parties provided platforms for political participation, articulation of grievances, and the demand for self-governance.


The origin of the 1979 constitution can be traced back to Nigeria’s transition from military rule to civilian rule. After a series of military coups and dictatorships, the military government under General Olusegun Obasanjo initiated a process to return the country to civilian rule. The Constitution Drafting Committee was established in 1975 to draft a new constitution that would form the basis for the transition.

The Constitution Drafting Committee, led by Chief Rotimi Williams, consisted of a diverse group of representatives from various sectors of society, including politicians, lawyers, academics, and traditional rulers. The committee held consultations and received input from the public, professional bodies, and political parties to ensure a broad-based and inclusive constitution.

After extensive deliberations, the draft constitution was presented to the Constituent Assembly in 1977. The Constituent Assembly, comprising elected representatives from all parts of Nigeria, debated and made amendments to the draft before finally adopting it on September 21, 1978. The constitution came into effect on October 1, 1979, marking the return of civilian rule to Nigeria.

(i) Presidential System: The 1979 Constitution established a presidential system of government, where the President serves as both the head of state and the head of government. This system separates powers between the executive, legislative, and judicial branches of government.

(ii) Bicameral Legislature: The constitution created a bicameral legislature, consisting of the National Assembly, which comprised the Senate and the House of Representatives. The National Assembly is responsible for making laws at the federal level.

(iii) Fundamental Human Rights: The constitution enshrined fundamental human rights for Nigerian citizens, providing protections for individual freedoms, liberties, and equality before the law.

(iv) Federal System: The 1979 Constitution continued with the federal system of government, allowing for a division of powers between the central government and state governments. This system aimed to decentralize governance and grant certain powers to the states.

(v) Independent Judiciary: The constitution established an independent judiciary, with the Supreme Court as the highest court in the land. The judiciary is responsible for interpreting the constitution and ensuring the rule of law is upheld.


(i) Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting (CHOGM): CHOGM is the principal decision-making body of the Commonwealth. It is a biennial summit that brings together the heads of government from member states to discuss and address key issues affecting the organization and its member countries.

(ii) Commonwealth Secretariat: The Secretariat is the main administrative body of the Commonwealth. It is responsible for coordinating the organization’s activities, providing support to member states, and implementing decisions made by CHOGM.

(iii) Commonwealth Ministerial Action Group (CMAG): CMAG is a subgroup of member countries tasked with monitoring and addressing serious or persistent violations of Commonwealth values, such as democracy, human rights, and the rule of law, within member states.

(iv) Commonwealth Foundation: This organization supports civil society initiatives within member countries. It aims to promote civic engagement, democracy, and sustainable development through various projects and grants.

(v) Commonwealth Games Federation (CGF): The CGF organizes the Commonwealth Games, a multi-sport event held every four years, bringing together athletes from member countries to compete in various sporting disciplines.

(vi) Commonwealth of Learning (COL): COL is an intergovernmental organization that focuses on promoting distance education and open learning to increase access to education and skills development within member countries.

(i) Diplomatic and Political Cooperation: Commonwealth membership provides a platform for member states to engage in diplomatic dialogue and build strong political relationships. This collaboration can lead to increased regional stability and conflict resolution.

(ii) Trade and Economic Opportunities: Being part of the Commonwealth can facilitate trade and economic cooperation among member countries. There is a historical basis for economic ties, and some members benefit from preferential trade agreements and common business practices.

(iii) Shared Values and Best Practices: The Commonwealth promotes shared values such as democracy, human rights, good governance, and the rule of law. Member states can learn from each other’s experiences and adopt best practices in areas like governance, healthcare, education, and environmental protection.

(vi) Cultural Exchange and People-to-People Connections: Commonwealth membership fosters cultural exchange and understanding among member countries. It encourages people-to-people connections, including educational exchanges, tourism, and collaborative arts and sports events.

(v) Capacity Building and Technical Assistance: The Commonwealth provides support and technical assistance to member countries, particularly those facing developmental challenges. This assistance can range from education and healthcare initiatives to aid in building institutional capacity and governance structures.


The crisis stemmed from the presidential election held on June 12, 1993, which was considered one of the freest and fairest elections in Nigeria’s history. The two main candidates were Moshood Kashimawo Olawale Abiola, a wealthy businessman and philanthropist, and Bashir Tofa, a businessman and politician. The election was held to replace the military government led by General Ibrahim Babangida, who had been in power since 1985.

The initial results showed that Moshood Abiola was winning by a significant margin, gaining widespread support across different regions and ethnic groups in Nigeria. However, before the final results were announced, General Babangida annulled the election, citing alleged electoral irregularities. This decision led to widespread outrage and protests across the country, as Nigerians felt that their democratic choice was being taken away.

Following the annulment, protests erupted in various parts of the country, particularly in the southwestern region, where Abiola had strong support. These protests were met with brutal repression by the military government, leading to the loss of lives and property. The political crisis intensified, with the country plunged into further turmoil as various groups and regions demanded the recognition of the June 12 election results.

The crisis eventually led to the resignation of General Babangida as the head of state, but power was handed over to an interim government led by Chief Ernest Shonekan. However, this interim government was short-lived, as General Sani Abacha, who was part of the military junta, took control in a coup later that year.

The June 12 election crisis has had a lasting impact on Nigeria’s political landscape. It is often seen as a turning point in the struggle for democracy and the recognition of the people’s will in the country. Moshood Abiola, who was widely regarded as the presumed winner of the election, became a symbol of the fight for democracy and justice. After years of political turmoil, Nigeria eventually transitioned to civilian rule in 1999.

(i) Social Unrest: Political crises often lead to social unrest, including protests, demonstrations, and clashes between security forces and citizens.

(ii) Economic Disruption: Political crises can disrupt economic activities and negatively impact a country’s economy.

(iii) Human Rights Violations: During political crises, human rights violations can occur as the government may resort to repression and use excessive force to quell protests or maintain control.

(iv) Loss of Confidence in Institutions: Political crises can erode public trust and confidence in political institutions and processes.

(v) Long-term Political Implications: Political crises can have long-lasting effects on a nation’s political landscape.



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