WAEC 2023 Visual Art Essays & Obj Answers Now Available

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Shading in art refers to the use of different tones and values of color to create the illusion of depth and dimension on a two-dimensional surface. By varying the amount of light and shadow in an artwork, shading helps to create the impression that the objects depicted have form and texture.

(i) Cross-hatching
(ii) Blending
(iii) Stippling
(iv) Chiaroscuro

(i) Creating the illusion of depth: by using perspective techniques, artists can create the impression that objects within an artwork have depth and occupy space.

(ii) Enhancing realism: the use of perspective techniques can help to make an artwork look more realistic and lifelike.

(iii) Creating a sense of scale: perspective techniques can be used to create a sense of proportion and scale within an artwork.

(iv) Adding drama and impact: by using extreme or unusual perspectives, artists can create a sense of drama and impact within an artwork.

(v) Guiding the viewer’s eye: perspective techniques can be used to direct the viewer’s focus and attention to certain parts of an artwork, helping to convey the artist’s message or intent.

Kolade Osinowo was a Nigerian artist, born and raised in Lagos, Nigeria. Throughout his career, he remained highly engaged with the cultural and artistic traditions of Nigeria and Africa as a whole.

Kolade Osinowo received his training in fine arts from several institutions, including the Yaba College of Technology in Lagos, the Central School of Art and Design in London, and the School of Visual Arts at the University of Lagos. Through his training, he developed a remarkable depth of knowledge and skill in a range of artistic mediums.

Kolade Osinowo was known for his mastery of a wide range of artistic mediums, including painting, drawing, print-making, sculpture, and mixed media. He was particularly interested in exploring themes of social justice, economic disparity, and the complexities of Nigerian identity in his artwork.

(i)”Faces of Poverty”: This painting depicts a group of people, including a young child, huddled together in poverty and despair. The painting is a powerful commentary on the stark economic disparities that exist in Nigerian society, and it challenges viewers to confront the systemic forces that perpetuate poverty and inequality.

(ii)”African Mask”: This sculpture is a striking interpretation of the traditional African mask, which Osinowo transformed into a modern work of art. The sculpture is marked by an incredible attention to detail, and it serves as a testament to Osinowo’s mastery of sculptural techniques.

(i) He helped to found the Art Renaissance Foundation, an organization that works to promote innovative and socially conscious forms of art throughout Africa.

(ii)He served as a mentor and inspiration to many young artists, and he played a critical role in shaping the direction of contemporary art in Nigeria.

(iii)He regularly exhibited his work in Nigeria and internationally, thereby raising the profile of African art on the global stage.

(iv) He was a vocal advocate for free expression and artistic emancipation in Nigeria, and he played an important role in the struggle for artistic freedom during a time when censorship and repression were common.

Odumasi-Krobo, Ghana

Training at Achimota College, He taught at the Winneba Teacher Training College (1961–1969) and was Head of Fine Art, College of Art (KNUST), Kumasi (1969–1974).

Drawings and teaching aids for Nature Study classes.

-Awakening Africa (1959–1960)


-Spiritual Journey

(i) He contributed in the promotion of traditional Ghanaian art forms
(ii) He contributed in the Exploration of identity and culture
(iii) He contributed in Social commentary
(iv) He contributed in the Inspiration to young artists
(v) International recognition


(i) Wood carving
(ii) Bronze casting
(iii) Beadwork
(iv) Textile weaving
(v) Pottery

(i) The sculptures are often carved with fine details, particularly on the face and body.
(ii) Fon sculptures also often feature elaborately decorated clothing or accessories, such as hats, necklaces, and arm bands.
(iii) They are typically made from wood, but may also be made from other materials such as bronze, brass, or ivory.
(iv) Fon sculptures are often used in religious and ritual contexts, and may be believed to have spiritual significance or protective powers.

(i) Religious and spiritual purposes: Fon art is often used in religious ceremonies to honor ancestral spirits and other deities.
(ii) Decorative purposes: Many Fon artworks are created purely for aesthetic or decorative purposes, such as decorative masks and headpieces.
(iii):Communication purposes: Certain Fon artworks, such as talking drums, are used to communicate messages across long distances.
(iv) Cultural preservation: Fon art serves as a tool for preservation of culture and customs of the Fon people.
(v) Economic purposes: Fon art is also used as a means of income generation through the sale of artworks to tourists and collectors.


Byzantine art refers to the art produced in the Byzantine Empire from the 4th to the 15thcenturies, characterized by its religious themes, rich use of gold and mosaics, and stylized depictions of figures.

The mosaics found in the Hagia Sophia in Istanbul,Turkey.

(i) Bright and vibrant colors: Impressionist artists preferred to use bright and pure colors, often mixed directly on the canvas.

(ii) Use of light: Impressionists were interested in capturing the effects of light on a scene, often using quick brush strokes to create the illusion of light and movement.

(iii) Emphasis on atmosphere: Impressions were more concerned with the mood and ambiance of a scene rather than realistic representation.

(iv) Focus on everyday life: Impressionist artists turned away from traditional themes of religion, mythology, and history and instead depicted everyday people and landscapes.

(v) Loose brush strokes: Impressionist artists used loose and visible brush strokes to depict the essence of a scene rather than its detail.


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