2023 WAEC Civic Education Objective & Essay Verified Answers – May/June

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(i) CONTENTMENT: This has to do with satisfaction in whatever situation a person find himself. When a person is contented, the person is satisfied in the position he or she finds himself or herself.

(ii) Hard-work: When there is justice people will work hard because they will see the value of their hard work. The government would have done so much on its part when it acts justly. People will not be lazy.

(iii) Diligence: This is the act of skills display, care an putting of thorough effort in doing particular work by someone. The perso who is skillful is required to use his or h professional skill in doing the work. TI person will do the work reasonable as it required with some form of skill.

(iv) Selflessness: This has to do with so much sacrifice on the part of an individual or society. Selflessness is also a situation where a person gives up his luxury for the sake of another or other people. This is done without expecting reward or favour from any one or any member of the society. A selfless person helps people in a community with out asking for any reward. He/She has a leadership quality.

(v) Honesty: Honesty means not telling lies but truth all the time. An honest person is loved in the society and among people. An honest person can be trusted with money and position of authority without any suspicion. When an honest person is voted into position of power, the people are happy because they know that there will be good governance, but when dishonest people are in power wickedness will be rampant.

(i) Nationhood and identity: Citizenship education helps individuals develop a sense of national identity, fostering a shared understanding of values, history, and cultural heritage. It strengthens the bond between citizens and their nation.

(ii) Active citizenship: Civic education empowers individuals to actively participate in civic life, including community development projects, volunteer work, and public service. It encourages citizens to take ownership of their communities and contribute to their improvement.

(iii) Democratic governance: Citizenship education promotes an understanding of democratic principles, processes, and institutions. It equips individuals with knowledge about their rights and responsibilities as citizens, preparing them to engage in democratic decision-making and hold elected representatives accountable.

(iv) Social responsibility: Civic education instills a sense of social responsibility, emphasizing the importance of contributing positively to society. It encourages citizens to be aware of societal issues, such as poverty, inequality.

(v) Peaceful coexistence: Citizenship education promotes respect, understanding, and dialogue among individuals from different backgrounds. It equips citizens with skills to resolve conflicts peacefully.



(i) Legal and Constitutional Basis: The extent to which a constituted authority derives its power from a legal and constitutional framework plays a crucial role in determining its legitimacy. When authority is established through lawful processes, such as elections, appointment procedures, or constitutional provisions, it enhances its legitimacy in the eyes of the society.

(ii) Consent and Support of the Population: Legitimacy is closely tied to the consent and support of the population. When citizens voluntarily recognize and accept the authority’s right to govern, it strengthens its legitimacy. Public support can be demonstrated through electoral participation, public opinion polls, or popular demonstrations of support.

(iii) Fair and Transparent Decision-Making: Legitimate authority is expected to make decisions in a fair and transparent manner. When decision-making processes are inclusive, participatory, and open to scrutiny, it enhances the legitimacy of the authority. Transparency helps build trust and ensures that decisions are made in the best interests of the society.

(iv) Accountability and Responsiveness: Legitimate authority is accountable to the population it governs. When constituted authorities are responsive to the needs and concerns of the people, and when mechanisms for holding them accountable exist, it enhances their legitimacy. Public officials who are held responsible for their actions and are transparent about their performance strengthen the legitimacy of the authority.

(v) Respect for Human Rights and Rule of Law: Legitimate authority upholds and protects human rights and operates within the framework of the rule of law. When the constituted authority respects and safeguards individual rights, promotes equality, and ensures justice, it enhances its legitimacy. Conversely, actions that violate human rights or undermine the rule of law erode legitimacy.

(vi) Effective Governance and Service Delivery: The ability of a constituted authority to effectively govern and provide essential services to the population contributes to its legitimacy. When the authority is capable of addressing public needs, such as maintaining security, improving infrastructure, delivering public services, and managing the economy, it strengthens its legitimacy in the eyes of the society.


(i) Legitimacy of Authority: When citizens perceive the government and its institutions as legitimate, they are more likely to comply with its directives. Legitimacy can be established through free and fair elections, respect for the rule of law, and transparency in decision-making.

(ii) Effective Governance: A well-functioning government that effectively addresses public needs and provides essential services fosters citizens’ obedience. When the government delivers on its promises, such as improving infrastructure, maintaining security, and ensuring basic amenities, people are more likely to comply with its authority.

(iii) Trust in Leadership: Trust plays a crucial role in citizens’ willingness to obey authority. When political leaders are perceived as trustworthy, accountable, and acting in the best interests of the people, citizens are more likely to follow their directives.

(iv) Sanctions and Enforcement: The presence of effective and fair enforcement mechanisms, such as a reliable judiciary and law enforcement agencies, can encourage obedience to constituted authority. When citizens observe that violations are appropriately addressed and there are consequences for non-compliance, they are more likely to conform.

(v) Civic Education and Awareness: Educating citizens about their rights, responsibilities, and the importance of obeying constituted authority is vital. Civic education programs that promote understanding of democratic principles, the rule of law, and the benefits of active citizenship can enhance compliance.

(vi) Effective Communication: Clear and effective communication from constituted authorities helps citizens understand the rationale behind certain policies or decisions. When information is accessible, timely, and well-communicated, citizens are more likely to comply willingly.

(vii) Social Norms and Culture: Cultural and societal norms play a role in shaping citizens’ obedience to authority. In Nigeria, where communal values and respect for authority are emphasized, citizens may be more inclined to obey constituted authority as a reflection of their cultural values.


Inter communal relationship is a relationship which exist between two or more communities. A good inter communal relationship will work to promote peace and harmony among the communities and bring people of various communities together.

(i) Cultural exchange and cooperation: Inter-communal relationships allow people from different cultural backgrounds to interact and learn from each other. This can lead to a better understanding of different cultures and traditions, which can ultimately promote harmony and peace in the community.

(ii) Resource sharing: Collaborating and working together as different communities can also help in sharing resources, such as land, water, and other natural resources. This can lead to more efficient utilization of resources and better development in the community.

(iii) Economic growth: Inter-communal relationships can also lead to economic growth by creating opportunities for trade and commerce. Communities can work together to establish markets, share business ideas, and support each other financially, which can lead to better economic outcomes for all.

(iv) Joint community projects: Collaborative efforts between different communities can also lead to the completion of joint community development projects. For example, communities can come together to build schools, hospitals, or community centers that will benefit all members of the society.


(i) National Drug Law Enforcement Agency (NDLEA)
(ii) National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC)
(iii) Nigeria Police Force (NPF)
(iv) Nigerian Customs Service (NCS)
(v) Department of State Services (DSS)
(vi) Nigerian Security and Civil Defence Corps

(i) Failure to follow medical advice can lead to the progression or worsening of the underlying medical condition.

(ii) Non-adherence can render the prescribed treatment ineffective, leading to inadequate symptom control or disease management.

(iii) Ignoring medical advice can increase the risk of complications and secondary infections. This can prolong the recovery process, worsen symptoms, and even lead to life-threatening situations.

(iv) Non-adherence to preventive measures, such as vaccination or isolation protocols for contagious diseases, can facilitate the spread of infections within the community.

(v) Non-adherence can lead to prolonged illness or the need for more intensive medical interventions, which can result in increased healthcare costs for individuals and society as a whole.

(vi) Inappropriate use or premature discontinuation of antibiotics can contribute to the development of antibiotic resistance.

(vii) When patients consistently disregard medical advice, it can reduce trust in healthcare professionals and the healthcare system overall.

(viii) Non-adherence to public health recommendations, such as social distancing or wearing masks during a pandemic, can undermine efforts to control the spread of diseases.



(i)Violence and Criminal Activities: Cultism often involves the use of violence, intimidation, and criminal activities such as robbery, kidnapping, drug trafficking, and extortion.
(ii)Loss of Lives and Property: Cult clashes and rivalries can result in frequent clashes between different cult groups, leading to loss of lives and destruction of property.
(iii)Breakdown of Law and Order: Cultism undermines the rule of law by creating a parallel system of authority and justice.
(iv)Social Instability: Cult activities can disrupt social harmony and stability within communities.
(v)Cult Recruitment and Exploitation: Cults often employ deceptive tactics to recruit vulnerable individuals, particularly young people.
(vi)Erosion of Ethical Values: Cults often promote ideologies that contradict societal norms and ethical values.
(vii)Academic Disruption: Cultism frequently infiltrates educational institutions, leading to the disruption of academic activities.


(i)High levels of poverty, unemployment, and inequality create an environment where vulnerable individuals are more likely to be recruited into cults.

(ii)Inadequate resources, corruption, and a lack of proper training and coordination among law enforcement agencies can hamper their ability to effectively combat cult activities.

(iii)One significant hindrance to eradicating cultism in Nigeria is the lack of effective law enforcement.

(iv)Limited public awareness and understanding of the dangers and consequences of cultism can hinder eradication efforts.

(v)Cults employ sophisticated techniques of manipulation and indoctrination to control their members’ thoughts, beliefs, and actions



(i) Policy Development and Implementation: Public servants play a crucial role in developing policies and strategies to address societal issues and achieve national goals. They research, analyze, and make recommendations to policymakers, and then implement approved policies, monitoring their progress and making adjustments as needed.

(ii) Service Delivery: Public servants are responsible for delivering public services to citizens. This includes providing healthcare, education, transportation, infrastructure development, social welfare programs, and more. They work to ensure these services are accessible, efficient, and of high quality.

(iii) Regulation and Compliance: Public servants enforce regulations and ensure compliance with laws and standards. They oversee sectors such as finance, commerce, health, and the environment, developing and implementing regulations, conducting inspections, and taking enforcement actions when necessary.

(iv) Budgeting and Financial Management: Public servants are involved in the formulation and execution of government budgets. They prepare budget proposals, allocate funds to different sectors, monitor expenditures, and ensure financial accountability and transparency.

(v) Human Resource Management: Public servants are responsible for managing the government’s workforce. They recruit, hire, train, and evaluate employees, promote merit-based appointments, and develop policies for staff welfare, performance management, and career advancement.

(vi) Public Engagement and Communication: Public servants engage with the public, communicating government policies, programs, and initiatives. They facilitate citizen participation, gather feedback, address concerns, and promote transparency and accountability.

(vii) Diplomacy and International Relations: Public servants represent Nigeria in diplomatic and international affairs. They participate in negotiations, promote trade and economic cooperation, manage consular services, and work towards regional and global partnerships.

(viii) Research and Development: Public servants conduct research and analysis to inform policymaking and improve service delivery. They generate data, evaluate existing programs, identify emerging trends, and propose innovative solutions to address societal challenges.

(ix) Crisis and Disaster Management: Public servants play a vital role in managing crises and disasters. They develop contingency plans, coordinate emergency response efforts, provide relief and support to affected communities, and facilitate recovery and reconstruction.

(x) Monitoring and Evaluation: Public servants monitor and evaluate the performance and impact of government programs and policies. They assess their effectiveness, efficiency, and outcomes, and make recommendations for improvement.


The Executive arm of government: This arm of government is concerned primarily with the administration of the state. It ensures that the laws made by the legislature are properly executed by its members. The executive arm is headed by the President of the state. It is made up of the Police, Arm Forces and different ministries and parastatals.

(i) Separation of powers: The executive arm of government is one of the three branches of government, along with the legislature and judiciary. This separation of powers ensures that no one branch of government has too much power, and that each branch serves as a check on the others.

(ii) Rule of law: The executive arm of government is responsible for enforcing laws and regulations that are designed to promote the rule of law, which is a fundamental principle of democracy. This ensures that everyone is subject to the same laws, and that no one is above the law.

(iii) Protection of human rights: The executive arm of government is responsible for protecting the human rights of all citizens, including freedom of speech, freedom of the press, and freedom of assembly. This ensures that citizens are free to express their opinions, to hold their leaders accountable, and to participate in the democratic process.

(iv) Accountability: The executive arm of government is accountable to the people, and is responsible for ensuring that public resources are used in a manner that is transparent, efficient, and effective. This ensures that citizens have a say in how their government is run, and that public officials are held accountable for their actions.

(v) Promotion of economic development: The executive arm of government is responsible for promoting economic development and growth, which is essential for the long-term sustainability of democracy. This involves creating an environment that is conducive to business and investment, and that promotes job creation and poverty reduction.

(vi) International relations: The executive arm of government is responsible for managing Nigeria’s relations with other countries, and for promoting peace, security, and stability in the region and beyond. This ensures that Nigeria is an active and responsible member of the international community, and that it contributes to global efforts to promote democracy and human rights.


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